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  1. Sourcing and Identifying Vendors
  2. Product/Service Requisition 
  3. Solicitation 
  4. Evaluating and Awarding
  5. Ordering and Contracting
  6. Reception and Payment 


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Sourcing and Identifying Vendors  

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Item TypeSome products with well established designs - such as machine parts - might require less spelled out specifications, and might rely more on specifying product capacity or functionality. Other products frequently used by the humanitarian sector - such as household products - are far more defined by specific needs, and are often combined with mutually recognized standards such as SPHERE. Though humanitarian agencies may have specific needs, the global understanding of those needs among vendors may not be well understood. For this reason, specifications for products specially developed or used for humanitarian interventions tend to be more explicit - usually the product is "developed" along side the vendor to match the purchasing agency's needs.
Agency Needs

Humanitarian agencies purchasing a small quantity of an item, or who that buy already standardized products may have very little need to explicitly state product material specifications. However, agencies that purchase large quantities of one product type of specialty product from a long term supplier or limited series of suppliers are more likely to have more advanced material specifications in their contracts.  Detailed product specifications will help vendors source the correct raw materials, and will help keep quality assurance up.

MarketsCommonly used large international vendors are usually more likely to be able to meet detailed product specifications requested by humanitarian agencies. The manufacturing capabilities and raw materials available to local companies may not meet the overall requirements of the requesting agency for key relief items. The balance between international and local procurement is something agencies must weigh, depending on local laws, import and transport costs, the ethics surrounding procurement, the desire to support local markets, and overall project needs.

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