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Transparency is also an important part of security management, since a perception of partiality or lack of transparency could lead to threats or increase risk for teams in the ground.

Proportionality

In the search for efficiency, aid agencies must diligently ensure principles guide procurement activities. It is strongly advised that there should be increases in control measures and procedures should increase proportional to the value the contract or procurement. The higher that value, the more measures, resources, and stricter procedures will be required. In the same wayInversely, if the value is reduced , procedures should be more lax. This principle is forms the base of the different Procurement Proceduresprocurement procedures.

Fairness

Humanitarian aid organisations are generally important economic actors in the places in which they operate, due to the high volume of products and services involved in humanitarian operations. Normally aid organisations operate in very small or disrupted markets, so it is helpful advisable to pay attention to the market assessments and keep it in mind in each context analysis.

Humanitarian organisations need to be aware of the local market composition and who are the different involved actors involved. When designing and implementing interventions, there is a need to organisations should assess and analyze analyse local markets and supporting supply chains , in order to facilitate their recovery. This principle is intended to ensure that all All potential suppliers have the same tools and information to compete fairly; agencies must be clear in the their requirements and the criteria that we are going to use to award the contracts.The equal treatment of suppliers does not mean that market categories that exclude or include certain suppliers cannot be made, but agencies must ensure that all of them have the same opportunities to be awardedcriteria applied to all awarded contracts.

Segregation of Duties 

Segregation of duties is a core principle of internal control and must be preserved in all procurement actions. According to the principle of segregation of duties, no single individual or team shall control all the stages of procurement process[3].

For the sake of quality and control, segregating responsibilities during the purchase process helps not only to identify errors by adding review and oversight steps, but also limits the possibility of fraud, adding clarity and confidence in the process. Having more than one person involved in the process also helps to protect those with procurement responsibilities from vague accusations.

The best result A best practice might be the segregation of duties segregation is the involvement of among persons with different points of view, knowledge and ideas, making decisions . Decisions are more likely to be successful while when everyone is informed and in agreement. The table below shows different examples on how to ensure the Segregation of duties:

The person to:

Should not be the only person to:

Request an article and/or fill the PR

Approve the Purchase Order (PO)

Execute the contracting/acquisition procedure

Approve the Purchase Order or the Contract / Framework Agreement

Select the supplier

Approve the Purchase Order or the Contract / Framework Agreement

Approve the Purchase Order (PO)

Receive the goods / services, e.g., Approve a Goods Receipt Note

Execute the contracting/acquisition procedure

Receive the goods / services, e.g., Approve a Goods Receipt Note

Receive the goods / services, e.g., Approve a Goods Receipt Note

Create payment request / Prepare Payment Package / Authorize Authorise payment

Save the Children International. Procurement Manual 2.0 01.01.2020.

Ethics

Humanitarian action aid has evolved its own defacto code of conduct, which has been and continues to be the object of a great internal debate. This set of principles has led to the development of multiple norms, or even rules, that agencies should observe in the implementation of programs. A good compendium and example of those is the Sphere Project, both for its depth and for the high consensus achieved. This is based on the need to contribute to improving the humanitarian response, to assert the rights and meet the needs of the affected people in a dignified way.There . This set of principles has led to the development of multiple norms, or even rules, that agencies observe while implementing programs. There are - for example - codes of conduct, which are understood and signed by all employees which may include rules that humanitarian staff

  • Do not use their authority or status for personal gain.
  • Maintain a high level of integrity and ethics in business relationships.
  • Use the resources and assets of the organisation responsibly.
  • Do not accept personal gifts from suppliers or engage in any other anti-competitive conduct.
  • Act and behave in a professional manner as representative of the organisation and donors, and avoids anything that could bring discredit to the organisation or donors.

When possible it is a best practice to include the ethical component when tenders are publishedrequirements in published tenders, and use its ethical requirement compliance as part of the selection criteria even though it is not always easy to evaluate against ethics as a criteria. There could be Frequently suppliers that do not have standard certifications - , nor are they are used to pay attention to this kind of policies. That´s when it becomes more important to have a good Market Analysis and pay regular visits to our suppliers, in order to be able to evaluate their way used to complying with ethics standards, which is why it is important to conduct a good market analysis. It is also important to conduct regular visits to suppliers premises to evaluate their ways of working.

Standards, Protocols and Controls

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  • Humanitarian responsibility. "Do not harm" (prevention of negative impacts, we are guests, respect local cultures).
  • Protection of victims. Presence with the victims as protection.
  • Collaboration with stakeholders (local, international): exchange know-how, optimization optimisation of resources, empowerment, sustainability.
  • Commitment to improve the education and training of our teams (national staff) and beneficiaries.
  • Prioritization of Prioritisation of the most vulnerable groups. Women, the elderly and children.
  • Maximum beneficiary participation. Search for their autonomy, listening mechanisms.
  • Respect for the environment. Environmentally friendly technical solutions, research and development, impact analysis, community awareness.
  • Integrated approach to interventions/Coordination with other organisations.

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