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Under very specific circumstances, barges can be an extremely cost-effective way of moving large volumes of cargo relatively large distances.  Barges are wide, flat river vessels with low edges, have flat bottoms, and have a shallow draft. This makes barges ideal for use in calm flat and shallow waters like a river, but largely unsuitable for turbulent waters like the open ocean. Barges can come in two configurations:

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Self-propelled – Self-propelled barges have a connected cabin and engine mount, and move as a single piece. Usually the engine is designed for moving large loads, but isn’t meant for speed.

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Dumb Barges – A “dumb” barge is an non self-powered floating platform, capable of holding cargo, but is without steering or an engine. Dumb barges require an external boat to move, including a tow boat or a “pusher,” a separate motivated boat that is specifically designed to push or pull dumb barges along waterways.

The barges themselves are divided into two general categories:

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Flat Deck – A barge on which the deck stowage is one large flat surface, upon which cargo rests and is secured to. Flat deck surfaces on barges are very exposed - they won't protect cargo from waves or from turbulent water, and items stored on the surface of flat decks can be easy targets for thieves. All cargo transported on the surface must be properly secured and tied down, and valuable items stored in a manner that won't enable easy theft. 

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Hopper / Split Hopper – A barge with one large or many smaller compartments that are partially below the edge of the barge. Hoppers can be used to store bulk loose items such as grains, sand or ore. Many hoppers can be covered with tarp or hard metal lids to protect contents, and some can even store additional cargo on top of the hopper compartments. Depending on the cargo, hopper/split barges can be loaded by hand or specialised MHE. 

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Tanker Barge - A barge designed to carry liquids or compressed gasses. Tanker barges requires specialised maintenance, and will only be used if the sending and receiving ports have the proper equipment to load and offload. 


Barge movement is likely the cheapest mode of moving cargo inland into a country, however it has limitations. Barging operations are extremely slow; the loading and offloading process can take days or weeks depending on the load type and the journey itself can take weeks to accomplish. Barges are also further limited by the ability to safely moor and offload at the point of delivery. Barges themselves can be impacted by seasonal changes to the riverway, making areas impassable for periods of time.

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Any goods being moved via animal must be packaged in relation to the weight that the particular animal can safely and humanely carry. There are many possible variations of available local animals depending on geography, climate, the local economy, and a variety of other local conditions. 

A general guide to working limitations of different pack animals might look like:

Animal

Load Capacity

Daily Work Rate

Region

Elephant

500 kg

5-8 hours/walk 24 km

Asia

Donkey

50 kg

Mountain, 8 hours

Middle East, Africa, South Asia, Latin America & Caribbean

Mule

50 kg

Mountain, 8 hours

Middle East, Africa, South Asia, Latin America & Caribbean

Llama

50-80 kg

8-10 hours/walk 30 km

South America

Horse

60 kg

6 hours

Asia, Eastern Europe, Middle East & North Africa

Bull

150-250 kg

8-10 hours

Middle East & North Africa, South Asia

Camel

150-250 kg

Walk 50 km

Middle East & North Africa, South Asia

Yak

70 kgs


South Asia

Pack animals estimated their work rates - WFP Transport and Logistics Manual 

Speaking with a local expert is strongly advised when developing an animal delivery plan. Typically, use of pack animals will be negotiated and contracted directly with the owners, or those in control of the animals who will be responsible for the transport. These may include:

  • Village elders.
  • Local authorities.
  • Committees of animal owners.
  • Local NGOs.

Transport documents will vary, but a variation of the standard method may be used, possibly amended as follows:

  • Issue one waybill for each group.
  • Divide the animals into groups of under one supervisor.
  • List animal owners and number of animals provided by each individual.
  • Assign a quantity of consignment to each group, for accountability.

All contracts for carriage by pack animals should still undergo the standard procurement process established by each individual agency, and and be within each agencies procurement procedures.