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It is common for humanitarian agencies manage a fleet of vehicles (cars, vans or motorbikes) to transport people. Agencies specialised in humanitarian logistics may also have to manage a fleet of trucks to regularly transport goods, water or construction materials. This chapter mainly focuses in on the management of light vehicle fleets used for the transport of people. For complementary considerations and technical information related to cargo transport, such as cargo configuration, route planning and scheduling or documentation for goods transport, please refer to the road transport chapter.

Alternatives to Vehicle Fleet Management

...

Other Humanitarian Agencies

It is very common for humanitarian agencies to operate simultaneously in certain locations. Pooling resources is a simple manner of optimising costs and recovering an investment. This is valid not only for transportation but also for common fleet facilities or resources, like a mechanical garage, a mechanic or a communications/radio room for movement tracking.

For sporadic use of other agencies vehicles, sharing of information and basic coordination mechanisms might be sufficient. In situations where agencies might make regular use of other agency fleet resources, both parties are strongly recommended to formalise partnerships through a Memorandum of Understanding, clearly outlying the benefits of the shared resources and clarifying the terms of accessing it. The contribution of each agency should grant equitable share of management efforts and expenditures.

Collective Public Transportation

In some locations collective transportation can result useful and cost-effective for moving people at regional or national level. This method can cover sporadic travels through safe routes not regularly covered by the agency. In addition, public road collective transport companies usually offer the service of transporting small parcels at low rates which can be useful in certain occasions.

Safety of public use vehicles and reliability of the service are major concerns when assessing collective public transportation means, and should be specifically evaluated for each candidate company offering the service. This is especially important in developing countries. Overall condition of the vehicles and availability of the basic safety means, maintenance routines, loading of the vehicle and drivers’ capabilities are some of the basic parameters to assess.

Individual Public Transportation (Taxi)

In urban settings, the use of taxis is one of the most common individual transport means. A taxi's flexibility, affordability and ease of management make of it a very good alternative or complement for the organisation’s fleet in urban operations. Taxies can be very useful for managing unplanned requests, and for scaling-up of transport based on need.

Safety and reliability of the taxi service are main concerns and should be specifically evaluated for each candidate company offering the service.

Where taxi companies are not well established or are not reliable, agreements with a specific pool of trustworthy taxi-drivers can be a solution. This is a common practice to cover the transport to and from the airport. This kind of agreements allow extended services such as prolonged stand-by time, wearable visibility from the agency, transport of goods, or handover of necessary material at arrival or departure such as mobile phone or keys.

Third-party Transport Providers

Humanitarian organisations have become increasingly reliant on Although third-party transport providers as a method of moving cargo into and around response operations. The overall running cost of using third-party companies may be higher, but in the volatile nature of response activities, outside companies can help start operations quickly, and organisations can start or stop operations as quickly as needed without concern for what to do with large physical assets. Even if an organisation owns its vehicles, there may be occasions when a need arises for additional capacity to meet peak activity or other short-term needs. This can be met by the use of vehicles supplied by a third-party commercial transport provider.

Third-party transport companies can usually be sourced locally within or near the emergency context, and utilising them also serves the function of putting money into the local economy and fostering local acceptance of the aid agency in question. Organisations should follow all due diligence when soliciting and selecting third-party transport companies, and follow their own internal procurement procedures wherever possible.

Although third-party transport providers are usually specialised in the transport of goods, in some locations they can also be trusted for the transport of people. The transport of people privately operated is mostly handled by renting companies that hire vans, minibuses or coaches with driver. This solution for transporting people is a suitable alternative for punctual and specific needs such as events gathering a significant number of people or for preventative security evacuations.

Advantages of third-party transport:

  • Flexibility - Organisations can use commercial providers to meet fluctuating demand requirements.
  • No Size Constraint – Organisations that may only use transport infrequently, or only transport small quantities of goods or people and may not need self-managed vehicles on hand at all times.
  • Cost – Third-party transporters will have virtually no start-up costs, and the transporter may be able to offer a more cost-effective and a more efficient service.
  • Complexity – The administration of vehicles and drivers is no longer the responsibility of the organisation, allowing the administration teams of the organisation to focus on other areas.

Disadvantages of third-party transport:

  • Ethics Concerns – Third-party transporters don’t directly represent a contracting organisation, and as such may engage in activities aid agencies might find unethical, such as transporting people or equipment for parties to a conflict or employing child labour. Driver standards are also not controlled by the shipper, and activities such as drug use, unsafe driving or sexual exploitation may occur.
  • Additional Risk – Though transporters may utilise additional insurance, there is always an increased risk using third-parties who may assume risks which the contracting organisation would not tolerate.
  • Long-term Costs – Though start-up costs may be substantially less with third-party transporters, over a long enough period of time, third-party commercial transport may always be higher. Organisations who are in a long-term programme and ship high volumes of cargo might encounter cheaper costs through renting or owing their own self-managed vehicles.

When regularly using third-party transport providers, a framework agreement can result useful to ease and boost the management process. It is strongly recommended to include particular terms and conditions related to safety in the agreement and to duly assess that they are respected prior to the delivery of each service.

The topic on rental of light vehicles (with or without driver) is covered below.

Fleet Management Process

Vehicle fleet management can be a simple or complex working process depending on the number and diversity of vehicles and the intensity of their use. 

Basic Workflow

Fleet management can be broken down into four basic components:

  1. Drivers
  2. Vehicles
  3. Users
  4. Movements

Following this logic, vehicle fleet management can also be looked at as several work streams that are simultaneously executed by one or several people:

  • Managing Vehicles - Ensuring vehicles are available and fit for purpose, performing regular checks, maintenance and repairs, administrative clearances, etc.
  • Managing Drivers - Ensuring drivers are available and fit for purpose, organising the roster, providing training, sharing relevant information, obtaining medical clearance, etc.
  • Managing Users - Ensuring that the users can access the fleet services in a timely and safe manner. This includes understanding user needs and dealing with requests, allocating the pertinent resources, providing the required information for the movement to be duly accomplished and collecting feedback on the service provision.
  • Managing Movements - Ensuring that movements are achieved satisfactorily, organising movements according to the needs expressed by users, monitoring of movements to ensure they are performed according to the plan, and ensuring standard working and security procedures.

All these workflows should be monitored - individually and as a whole (fleet) - ensuring due performance, proper balance and adjusting when required. Overuse of resources and mechanical failure, burnout of drivers and bad behaviour, or discontent among the passengers are typical symptoms of fleet dysfunctions that should be addressed. All four of the main categories flow into a fifth basic work stream: Monitoring.

1.  Drivers

2.  Vehicles

3.  Users

4.  Movements 

5.  Monitoring 

...

Image Removed

Fleet Management Functions

Managing fleet and workflows can help define a typical set of roles and responsibilities for different parties. Combining or dividing tasks between one or several profiles will depend on the scale of the fleet, the intensity of its use and the given operational context. In a field office with a fleet of 1 to 6 vehicles and an outsourced garage, one single person could supervise all workflows and a team of 6 to 8 drivers. If the number of vehicles and drivers is significantly larger or the mechanical garage used to service the vehicles is self-managed by the agency, new and specialised profiles could be added to the team.

Typical roles and responsibilities in vehicle fleet management might include:

...

Drivers are in charge of transporting goods and passengers in the organisation’s vehicles, ensuring its technical and safety conditions and respecting the country’s traffic rules and the organisation’s working and security procedures to provide a safe, smooth and efficient service.

To achieve this, he/she should perform the assigned vehicle regular checks, ensure that all vehicle documents and driving licenses are valid and available in the vehicle, refilling the fuel tank when necessary and ensure correct loading and unloading of the vehicle.

In addition, he/she is in charge of informing agency management of any incidents involving the transportation of passengers or goods and should know how to use all types of required equipment, for communication (telephones, satellite phones or radios), safety (first aid kit and fire-extinguisher), recovery of the vehicle and to perform basic repairs and maintenance (changing tires, checking tire pressure, etc.).

...

The head driver is a specific profile employed when a significant number of drivers are used in a given fleet. The head driver can sometimes take over many of the duties normally ascribed to a fleet manager, provided the working arrangements make sense. The head driver coordinates the team of drivers, preparing and overseeing their work: regular checks of vehicles, vehicle inventory, refilling, etc. He/she is in charge of reporting any problems with the vehicles as well as ensuring maintenance on the fleet of vehicles and that cars are serviced at the desired time to ensure good use of it and to deliver services.

In addition, the head driver organises training courses for drivers, conducts driving tests for all new drivers and performs regular drivers’ assessments.

The head driver can also be in charge of the allocation of vehicles according to the availability of drivers, the preparation of rosters and replacements in case of absence. He/she can be also involved in some monitoring tasks such as monthly reports on services, repairs and fuel consumption of each vehicle.

...

A mechanic performs the necessary servicing, maintenance and repair of vehicles (and other engines as generators) to ensure that they are in usable running conditions. He/she also briefs and train the team of drivers regarding vehicle services and maintenance.

A mechanic is strongly advised when agencies are running a self-owned mechanical workshop, however mechanics can be employed to also conduct repairs and maintenance on vehicles in a variety of contexts. The mechanic is responsible of the equipment and tools in the garage, checking they are correctly and safely used, maintaining and renewing them when necessary and keeping the inventory updated. Although the mechanic can manage a stock of some basic consumable items, it is not advised that he/she manages the stock of spare parts - this would hinder accountability and goes against the basic division of supply chain responsibilities.

The mechanic can also support the evaluation of external workshops for eventual sub-contracting as well as checking light and heavy vehicles before its rental.

An intermediary solution commonly used when a full-time mechanic is not required, is combining the role of driver and mechanic, allocating a number of (full) days for mechanic duties.

...

The movement manager ensures that all movements are organised and implemented. He/she gathers regular and ad-hoc movement requests and assigns available resources accordingly (vehicle, driver and communications equipment when necessary), informing the relevant people about the movement plan and any change on schedules.

In addition, he/she monitors and registers any movement, of people, vehicles and cargo, ensuring its implementation under the established working and security procedures: departure, arrival, number of passengers, route taken, standard contact points, etc. He/she should inform of any delay or incident reported by any of the on-route vehicles.

...

The fleet manager is the overall supervisor of the fleet. He/she should elaborate and implement strategies to guarantee the adequacy of the fleet. This includes development and review of the annual plan and budget for maintenance, renewal and scale up when necessary and planning and supervising the human resources to ensure both the sizing and the necessary knowledge and competencies. Depending on the size of the organisation and the vehicle needs, the fleet manager may assume the duties of the movement manager and head driver, or may choose to employ separate distinct job profiles to help manage a wider set of tasks in larger operations.

The Fleet manager should monitor the fleet performance and support decision taking with regular reports. He/she should also advise on fleet related topics such as vehicle insurance, type and frequency of maintenance, evaluations of all the hired vehicles and transport companies, drawing up the necessary contracts.

In addition, and if applicable, the fleet manager should define the order for spare parts, and assess and identify potential local providers.

The Fleet Management Cycle

Fleet management can be looked at as a sequential set of steps. This overview is especially advisable when the scale of a fleet is large and when an agency owns of most of the fleet related assets and services.

1.  Planning

2.  Selection and acquisition

3.  Commissioning

4.  Use

5.  Maintenance and repair

6.  Monitoring

7.  Decommissioning and replacing

...

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Fleet Planning

Fleet planning is a key strategic activity used to shape fleets and their corresponding management model to support adequate and sustainable solutions to organisational needs. Fleet planning encompasses the operational, technical, administrative and financial dimensions of individual organisations, and therefore tends to be very organisational specific.

A fleet plan may depend on donor specific requirements, and may be linked with other organisational policies, such as human resources, daily operations or security policies. Some organisations may require vehicles be restricted to specific projects while others utilise vehicle pools to serve multiple projects. Driving policies can vary from a strict reliance on a dedicated driver from the organisation to using staff to drive the vehicles.

The administrative policies of individual organisations will dictate which fleet management approach will be utilised, and the custodian of the fleet management function is very dependent on organisational policies and structures. In any case, the following elements should be considered:

  • The transport needs in a given period:
    • Frequency.
    • Destinations.
    • Passengers.
    • Cargo.
  • The context and the available infrastructure:
    • Urban or remote settings.
    • Other transport means available and how secure are they.
    • Condition of roads.
    • Administrative requirements for an agency to own a vehicle and for people to drive it.
    • Basic supplies available like fuel and consumables.
  • The costs of running a fleet and the available funding.
  • The risks (financial, legal and security related) of owning and/or managing a fleet of vehicles.

The number of vehicles required should be determined in the planning phase. To do so, evaluate the different activities requiring vehicle transport and determine the number of people and the frequency required for each activity. Typical activities to consider, include:

  • Field missions.
  • Staff transportation:
    • Between offices in the same region.
    • Between accommodation and office or other working sites.
    • Between offices and transport hubs (i.e., airport).
  • Support of daily activities such as:
    • Administration.
    • Meetings and coordination.
  • Private use of vehicles.
  • Cargo movement.

Plans should be developed and resources made available to reallocate, dispose or purchase vehicles in case of scaling up or down, or to renew obsolete vehicles. Additionally, the right number and types of drivers should be evaluated and adjusted to match operations. HR policies such as maximum working hours per day or holidays should be considered. If the organisation is experiencing significant changes in terms of mobility demand or the operational context significantly changes, a deeper revision of the management model may be required, including:

  • Outsourcing some of the fleet related services such as maintenance.
  • Type of insurance.
  • Recruiting more staff to deal with fleet related workflows.
  • Shifting earliest departure time or latest arrival time.
  • Incorporating security clearance or convoy procedures for specific movements.

All planning revision should incorporate budget requirements and the strategies to reduce fleet costs. A specific annual budget for fleet activities is strongly recommended including costs of vehicles, maintenance, consumption of fuel and other consumable items.

Costs to consider when making vehicle related decisions include acquisition, importation, fuel, insurance, repairs, maintenance, labour, toll and parking and disposal among others. The investment required for equipment to be installed in the vehicle, such as communications or safety equipment, shouldn’t be neglected when budgeting. If organisations do not take all the costs related to owning a fleet of vehicles, it can lead to funding challenges such as insufficient funds to maintain and repair the vehicles, to hire a fleet manager or to organise driver training.

Vehicle Selection and Acquisition

Vehicles

The basic considerations in choosing the most suitable passenger vehicle are related with its intended purpose, the number of passengers requiring simultaneous use, and length and frequency of the journeys. Three main options are to be considered at this first stage: motorbike, light vehicle or van/minibus. If transporting cargo, the required cargo capacity should be anticipated. Vehicles with independent trunk or hybrid solutions such as pick-up vehicles can be considered. Visit the road transport chapter for more information on cargo truck selection. The operating context, environmental and road conditions will affect the decision and determine technical requirements of the vehicle such as 4WD, air conditioning, or other extra features. Availability of spare parts in the local market and local knowledge and capacity to achieve all type of maintenance and repairs is also an important factor to consider. 

Other factors that can limit the selecting options can be the available budget, donor’s requirements or organisational policies on standardisation of vehicles. Donor regulations can restrict the type or origin of vehicles that they will fund.

Standardisation

Fleet standardisation can be useful when similar functions are to be achieved by the given set of vehicles. Standardising a fleet consists of reducing fleet vehicle diversity, contributing to significant cost savings and gaining efficiency in key processes such as:

  • Planning - Costs, assignments, maintenance.
  • Vehicle daily operation - Regular checks, use of controls and displays, driving “feel”.
  • Maintenance and repairs - Diagnosis, tools, expertise.
  • Inventory management - Spare parts, fuel, fluids.
  • Procurement and vendor relations - Market research, contracts, invoices.
  • Monitoring - Comparing performance among vehicles and drivers, expenditures.

It is important to undertake standardisation not only at vehicle make and model level, but also for vehicle major components and equipment. Purchasing one type of filter, for example, can help track consumption and while enabling fleet managers to negotiate bulk purchases. Improperly managed standardisation can lead to suspicions of collusion: all decisions about standardising the fleet must be done transparently and with high levels of accountability.

Ownership Modalities

When it comes to vehicle selection and acquisition, ownership modality becomes a relevant debate. Vehicles belonging to a self-managed fleet can be owned, rented or leased.

Owned Vehicles:

If an organisation decides to acquire its own vehicles, there are a number of areas to be considered.

Cost – The start-up and investment capital required to obtain vehicles can be substantial, and aid agencies limited to grant funding may not be able to cover costs all at once. Operating in many contexts will also incur substantial insurance costs as well. The total cost of ownership should be evaluated previous to any engagement, as running and indirect costs can have a significant budgetary impact.

Sourcing – Vehicles can be sourced locally, or they can be imported into the response operation at by the organisation. Bringing in outside vehicles might be a good way of finding the best or most appropriate asset, but may take a long time to acquire and cost a large sum of money depending on the distance to delivery and the type of transport used. Although in some countries and/or emergencies humanitarian agencies may be tax exempted, vehicles brought from a different country will also need to undergo regular customs formalities.

Be aware that some countries do not allow particular models to be imported. This is due mainly due environmental or economic reasons. In some cases, countries put extremely high import and/or registration taxes to protect their manufacturing market. If agencies are looking to import a vehicle, it is of paramount importance to find out the official and practical procedures for import.

...

are usually specialised in the transport of goods, in some locations they can also be trusted for the transport of people. The transport of people privately operated is mostly handled by renting companies that hire vans, minibuses or coaches with driver. This solution for transporting people is a suitable alternative for punctual and specific needs such as events gathering a significant number of people or for preventative security evacuations.

When regularly using third-party transport providers, a framework agreement can be useful to ease the management process. It is strongly recommended to include particular terms and conditions related to safety in the agreement and to duly assess that they are respected prior to the delivery of each service.

Please reference the road transport section of this guide for more information on the advantages and disadvantages of using third-party transportation, and the recommended terms for developing contracts for third-party transport.

The topic on rental of light vehicles (with or without driver) is covered below.

Fleet Management Process

Vehicle fleet management can be a simple or complex working process depending on the number and diversity of vehicles and the intensity of their use. 

Basic Workflow

Fleet management can be broken down into four basic components:

  1. Drivers
  2. Vehicles
  3. Users
  4. Movements

Following this logic, vehicle fleet management can also be looked at as several work streams that are simultaneously executed by one or several people:

  • Managing Vehicles - Ensuring vehicles are available and fit for purpose, performing regular checks, maintenance and repairs, administrative clearances, etc.
  • Managing Drivers - Ensuring drivers are available and fit for purpose, organising the roster, providing training, sharing relevant information, obtaining medical clearance, etc.
  • Managing Users - Ensuring that the users can access the fleet services in a timely and safe manner. This includes understanding user needs and dealing with requests, allocating the pertinent resources, providing the required information for the movement to be duly accomplished and collecting feedback on the service provision.
  • Managing Movements - Ensuring that movements are achieved satisfactorily, organising movements according to the needs expressed by users, monitoring of movements to ensure they are performed according to the plan, and ensuring standard working and security procedures.

All these workflows should be monitored - individually and as a whole (fleet) - ensuring due performance, proper balance and adjusting when required. Overuse of resources and mechanical failure, burnout of drivers and bad behaviour, or discontent among the passengers are typical symptoms of fleet dysfunctions that should be addressed. All four of the main categories flow into a fifth basic work stream: Monitoring.

1.  Drivers


2.  Vehicles


3.  Users


4.  Movements 


5.  Monitoring 

Image Added


Fleet Management Functions

Managing fleet and workflows can help define a typical set of roles and responsibilities for different parties. Combining or dividing tasks between one or several profiles will depend on the scale of the fleet, the intensity of its use and the given operational context. In a field office with a fleet of 1 to 6 vehicles and an outsourced garage, one single person could supervise all workflows and a team of 6 to 8 drivers. If the number of vehicles and drivers is significantly larger or the mechanical garage used to service the vehicles is self-managed by the agency, new and specialised profiles could be added to the team.

Typical roles and responsibilities in vehicle fleet management might include:

Driver

Drivers are in charge of transporting goods and passengers in the organisation’s vehicles, ensuring its technical and safety conditions and respecting the country’s traffic rules and the organisation’s working and security procedures to provide a safe, smooth and efficient service.

To achieve this, he/she should perform the assigned vehicle regular checks, ensure that all vehicle documents and driving licenses are valid and available in the vehicle, refilling the fuel tank when necessary and ensure correct loading and unloading of the vehicle.

In addition, he/she is in charge of informing agency management of any incidents involving the transportation of passengers or goods and should know how to use all types of required equipment, for communication (telephones, satellite phones or radios), safety (first aid kit and fire-extinguisher), recovery of the vehicle and to perform basic repairs and maintenance (changing tires, checking tire pressure, etc.).

Head Driver

The head driver is a specific profile employed when a significant number of drivers are used in a given fleet. The head driver can sometimes take over many of the duties normally ascribed to a fleet manager, provided the working arrangements make sense. The head driver coordinates the team of drivers, preparing and overseeing their work: regular checks of vehicles, vehicle inventory, refilling, etc. He/she is in charge of reporting any problems with the vehicles as well as ensuring maintenance on the fleet of vehicles and that cars are serviced at the desired time to ensure good use of it and to deliver services.

In addition, the head driver organises training courses for drivers, conducts driving tests for all new drivers and performs regular drivers’ assessments.

The head driver can also be in charge of the allocation of vehicles according to the availability of drivers, the preparation of rosters and replacements in case of absence. He/she can be also involved in some monitoring tasks such as monthly reports on services, repairs and fuel consumption of each vehicle.

Mechanic

A mechanic performs the necessary servicing, maintenance and repair of vehicles (and other engines as generators) to ensure that they are in usable running conditions. He/she also briefs and train the team of drivers regarding vehicle services and maintenance.

A mechanic is strongly advised when agencies are running a self-owned mechanical workshop, however mechanics can be employed to also conduct repairs and maintenance on vehicles in a variety of contexts. The mechanic is responsible of the equipment and tools in the garage, checking they are correctly and safely used, maintaining and renewing them when necessary and keeping the inventory updated. Although the mechanic can manage a stock of some basic consumable items, it is not advised that he/she manages the stock of spare parts - this would hinder accountability and goes against the basic division of supply chain responsibilities.

The mechanic can also support the evaluation of external workshops for eventual sub-contracting as well as checking light and heavy vehicles before its rental.

An intermediary solution commonly used when a full-time mechanic is not required, is combining the role of driver and mechanic, allocating a number of (full) days for mechanic duties.

Mobility/Movement Manager

The movement manager ensures that all movements are organised and implemented. He/she gathers regular and ad-hoc movement requests and assigns available resources accordingly (vehicle, driver and communications equipment when necessary), informing the relevant people about the movement plan and any change on schedules.

In addition, he/she monitors and registers any movement, of people, vehicles and cargo, ensuring its implementation under the established working and security procedures: departure, arrival, number of passengers, route taken, standard contact points, etc. He/she should inform of any delay or incident reported by any of the on-route vehicles.

Fleet Manager

The fleet manager is the overall supervisor of the fleet. He/she should elaborate and implement strategies to guarantee the adequacy of the fleet. This includes development and review of the annual plan and budget for maintenance, renewal and scale up when necessary and planning and supervising the human resources to ensure both the sizing and the necessary knowledge and competencies. Depending on the size of the organisation and the vehicle needs, the fleet manager may assume the duties of the movement manager and head driver, or may choose to employ separate distinct job profiles to help manage a wider set of tasks in larger operations.

The Fleet manager should monitor the fleet performance and support decision taking with regular reports. He/she should also advise on fleet related topics such as vehicle insurance, type and frequency of maintenance, evaluations of all the hired vehicles and transport companies, drawing up the necessary contracts.

In addition, and if applicable, the fleet manager should define the order for spare parts, and assess and identify potential local providers.

The Fleet Management Cycle

Fleet management can be looked at as a sequential set of steps. This overview is especially advisable when the scale of a fleet is large and when an agency owns of most of the fleet related assets and services.

1.  Planning


2.  Selection and acquisition


3.  Commissioning


4.  Use


5.  Maintenance and repair


6.  Monitoring


7.  Decommissioning and replacing


Image Added

Fleet Planning

Fleet planning is a key strategic activity used to shape fleets and their corresponding management model to support adequate and sustainable solutions to organisational needs. Fleet planning encompasses the operational, technical, administrative and financial dimensions of individual organisations, and therefore tends to be very organisational specific.

A fleet plan may depend on donor specific requirements, and may be linked with other organisational policies, such as human resources, daily operations or security policies. Some organisations may require vehicles be restricted to specific projects while others utilise vehicle pools to serve multiple projects. Driving policies can vary from a strict reliance on a dedicated driver from the organisation to using staff to drive the vehicles.

The administrative policies of individual organisations will dictate which fleet management approach will be utilised, and the custodian of the fleet management function is very dependent on organisational policies and structures. In any case, the following elements should be considered:

  • The transport needs in a given period:
    • Frequency.
    • Destinations.
    • Passengers.
    • Cargo.
  • The context and the available infrastructure:
    • Urban or remote settings.
    • Other transport means available and how secure are they.
    • Condition of roads.
    • Administrative requirements for an agency to own a vehicle and for people to drive it.
    • Basic supplies available like fuel and consumables.
  • The costs of running a fleet and the available funding.
  • The risks (financial, legal and security related) of owning and/or managing a fleet of vehicles.

The number of vehicles required should be determined in the planning phase. To do so, evaluate the different activities requiring vehicle transport and determine the number of people and the frequency required for each activity. Typical activities to consider, include:

  • Field missions.
  • Staff transportation:
    • Between offices in the same region.
    • Between accommodation and office or other working sites.
    • Between offices and transport hubs (i.e., airport).
  • Support of daily activities such as:
    • Administration.
    • Meetings and coordination.
  • Private use of vehicles.
  • Cargo movement.

Plans should be developed and resources made available to reallocate, dispose or purchase vehicles in case of scaling up or down, or to renew obsolete vehicles. Additionally, the right number and types of drivers should be evaluated and adjusted to match operations. HR policies such as maximum working hours per day or holidays should be considered. If the organisation is experiencing significant changes in terms of mobility demand or the operational context significantly changes, a deeper revision of the management model may be required, including:

  • Outsourcing some of the fleet related services such as maintenance.
  • Type of insurance.
  • Recruiting more staff to deal with fleet related workflows.
  • Shifting earliest departure time or latest arrival time.
  • Incorporating security clearance or convoy procedures for specific movements.

All planning revision should incorporate budget requirements and the strategies to reduce fleet costs. A specific annual budget for fleet activities is strongly recommended including costs of vehicles, maintenance, consumption of fuel and other consumable items.

Costs to consider when making vehicle related decisions include acquisition, importation, fuel, insurance, repairs, maintenance, labour, toll and parking and disposal among others. The investment required for equipment to be installed in the vehicle, such as communications or safety equipment, shouldn’t be neglected when budgeting. If organisations do not take all the costs related to owning a fleet of vehicles, it can lead to funding challenges such as insufficient funds to maintain and repair the vehicles, to hire a fleet manager or to organise driver training.

Vehicle Selection and Acquisition

Vehicles

The basic considerations in choosing the most suitable passenger vehicle are related with its intended purpose, the number of passengers requiring simultaneous use, and length and frequency of the journeys. Three main options are to be considered at this first stage: motorbike, light vehicle or van/minibus. If transporting cargo, the required cargo capacity should be anticipated. Vehicles with independent trunk or hybrid solutions such as pick-up vehicles can be considered. Visit the road transport chapter for more information on cargo truck selection. The operating context, environmental and road conditions will affect the decision and determine technical requirements of the vehicle such as 4WD, air conditioning, or other extra features. Availability of spare parts in the local market and local knowledge and capacity to achieve all type of maintenance and repairs is also an important factor to consider. 

Other factors that can limit the selecting options can be the available budget, donor’s requirements or organisational policies on standardisation of vehicles. Donor regulations can restrict the type or origin of vehicles that they will fund.

Standardisation

Fleet standardisation can be useful when similar functions are to be achieved by the given set of vehicles. Standardising a fleet consists of reducing fleet vehicle diversity, contributing to significant cost savings and gaining efficiency in key processes such as:

  • Planning - Costs, assignments, maintenance.
  • Vehicle daily operation - Regular checks, use of controls and displays, driving “feel”.
  • Maintenance and repairs - Diagnosis, tools, expertise.
  • Inventory management - Spare parts, fuel, fluids.
  • Procurement and vendor relations - Market research, contracts, invoices.
  • Monitoring - Comparing performance among vehicles and drivers, expenditures.

It is important to undertake standardisation not only at vehicle make and model level, but also for vehicle major components and equipment. Purchasing one type of filter, for example, can help track consumption and while enabling fleet managers to negotiate bulk purchases. Improperly managed standardisation can lead to suspicions of collusion: all decisions about standardising the fleet must be done transparently and with high levels of accountability.

Ownership Modalities

When it comes to vehicle selection and acquisition, ownership modality becomes a relevant debate. Vehicles belonging to a self-managed fleet can be owned, rented or leased.

Owned Vehicles:

If an organisation decides to acquire its own vehicles, there are a number of areas to be considered. For more information on the advantages and disadvantages of managing self-owned vehicles, please reference the section on self-owned vehicles in the road transport section of this guide.

Rented Vehicles:

Rented vehicles have become available almost everywhere in the world. Depending on the context, rentals are offered by private companies or individuals, with or without driver. The reasons to use rented vehicles can be various; financial, programmatic, technical or due to insecurity. Some key factors to consider when renting a vehicle might include:

...

  • Km reading
  • Fuel level
  • Engine (Noise, leakage, smoke)
  • Lubrication System (Leakage, filters, pressure)
  • Cooling System (Leakage, radiator, liquid, fan, belt)
  • Air admission & injection (Air filter, fuel filter)
  • Exhaust System (fixing, leakage)
  • Fuel Tank (leakage, pipes)
  • Brake System (leaks, noise, pedal, parking brakes)
  • Suspension (soft/hard, springs, shock absorbers-bushes)
  • Tyres (pressure, tread, state and spare wheel)
  • Chassis (Cracks, fastening)
  • Body (impacts, bumpers, bonnet)
  • Doors (windows, hinges, adjustment, locks)
  • Visibility (windshield, mirrors, sun visors)
  • Seats (seat belts, fastening)
  • Electrical System (battery, starter motor, front and rear lights, Indicators, roof lights, dashboard warning/indicators, wiping system, horn)
  • Availability of Jacks & Tools
  • Administrative Documents (Registration, Chassis & Engine Nº, Vehicle insurance)

A guide for users to mark where physical damages might show on the body:

Sedan

4x4

Van


A template for a daily physical inspection might look like:

Image Modified

Adapted from IFRC

...

Equally important to the mechanical condition of the rental vehicle are the rental driver’s health condition, driving skills, administrative permits, driving and working behaviour and required knowledge to operate the vehicle in the required context, such as speaking local language and the geography that will be travelled. For further information on this matter, refer to the below section on recruitment: selecting and testing drivers.

If rental of vehicles is a long-term strategy, consider keeping a pool of “rental” drivers that can be engage upon request. Validating and instructing batches of several drivers in a single session will reduce the time spent in this important activity.

...

In order to draw up a convenient rental agreement, the following should be considered[2]:

  • Define the time-frame of the rental and the time unit used for the rate - hour, day, week, month. If the rental exceeds a single day, it is recommended to agree on a daily rate and charge based on days word. If a monthly rate is used, clarify if calendar month, a period of four weeks or 30 days is covered in the contract.
  • Clarify who provides the driver - the humanitarian agency or the owner. If the owner provides the driver, clarify that the driers drier's cost is included in the rental. In addition, the hours the driver can work must be agreed together with the rate for additional worked hours. If required, the owner should provide a second driver. It is advised that the owner provided drivers come with per diem/accommodation.
  • Define the party responsible of providing fuel:
    • If the agency provides fuel, make sure that the tank is full prior to its first use.
    • If the owner/rental company who provides fuel, ensure that the quantity in the tank is enough to achieve the programmed daily movements, avoiding losing valuable time going to the fuel station.
  • Identify the site where the vehicle will be parked at night -  the the agency’s compound or the owners. Where fuel is provided by the agency, the vehicle should be parked in the its a compound.
  • Ensure that there are no restrictions as to where the vehicle can go in any given country. This is especially important on particularly bad roads or in conflict areas.
  • Ensure the owner provides insurance and proof of insurance cover. Are passengers already insured or is additional cover required? A comprehensive insurance coverage preferred. The agency should avoid any liability related to car crashes with rental vehicles. Failure to clarify this can lead to dispute and legal demands between vehicle owners and humanitarian agencies.
  • Define who is responsible for breakdowns and regular maintenance. It is strongly recommended that responsibility for recovery and repairs falls under the vehicles owner’s responsibility: avoid the responsibility for maintenance or repairs on vehicles which are not owned, as the initial condition of the vehicle can lead to frequent breakdowns, abusive practices and enormous levels of investment. If possible, agree on getting the owner to provide a replacement vehicle at no extra charge in the event of a breakdown or maintenance, without causing undue delay to programmed activities.
  • Conduct a complete inventory of tools/utensils, keep a record of these items, and ensure the vehicle carries at least the minimum required tools in case of flat tire or minor repair.

...

In some circumstances leasing could be the most financially advantageous method of renting vehicle for a limited period of time. Vehicle leasing is defined as a long-term rental with certain obligations on the lessor to ensure that the vehicle is properly operating and kept in good condition[3].

Before deciding to lease a vehicle, the ‘whole-life cost’ should be calculated and compared to other procurement options. If leasing is the cheapest option, whole-life costing can then be used to identify the optimum lease period and supplier.

The things to consider when purchasing, renting, or outsourcing can be summarised in the following table[4]:

Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

Local Purchase

  • Lower transport costs.
  • Fast delivery.
  • Supports the national economy.
  • Might not have the quality or quantity needed.
  • High demand for vehicles can generate competition among organisations and lead to extremely high prices.
  • Donors might be reluctant to fund in short term emergency.

Foreign Purchase/Import

  • Possible to acquire more vehicles of good quality.
  • Might lead to lower costs if the organisation has global framework with vehicle manufacturer.
  • Longer delivery times.
  • Higher costs to ship and import vehicles.
  • Organisations might not be able to import a vehicle into a country, depending on national policy and custom regulations.

Renting Vehicles (using local rental providers)

  • Vehicles will only be ordered/used when necessary and can accommodate short trips.
  • Routine maintenance costs usually are included in rental contracts.
  • No overhead costs in garage set-up and maintenance.
  • No high initial purchase costs.
  • Rental companies might provide insurance and drivers who understand environment and route.
  • The organisation loses control over some aspects of its fleet management.
  • Discontinuation of services can cause disruptions in the day-to-day operations.
  • If the rental contract is cancelled for any reason, the organisation may have to make heavy investments in vehicle purchase or temporary hire to ensure business continuity.
  • If rental vehicle comes with a driver the quality of the driver needs to be guaranteed.

Outsourcing Transport

  • External provider will take care of everything: drivers, vehicles, fuel, maintenance, insurance, telematics, reporting and more.
  • Fleet management is not the core activity; organisations can focus strictly on programmatic delivery.
  • Increases cost savings, human resource productivity and cash flow.
  • Multiple contract options: per vehicle per journey, per vehicle per day or by the ton.
  • The organisation loses control of some aspects of its fleet management.
  • Realistically, safety, speed and quality must be carefully assessed.
  • Discontinuation of services will cause disruptions in day-to-day operations.

...

Organisations must ensure that all employees involved in driving activities have the necessary competency to drive safely. Competence is entails having appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes, as well as behaviour.

Some of the required skills and competences for drivers are:

  • Driving license.
  • Respect of humanitarian values and adherence to the humanitarian charter and principles.
  • Fitness to drive.
  • Ability to apply different driving techniques: defensive driving, off-road driving, eco-driving, etc.
  • Literacy in the working language and able to speak the local language.
  • Respect and willingness to work with people from different ethnics and origins.
  • Experience with specific vehicles to use (4x4, motorbikes, etc.).
  • Knowledge of basic mechanics.
  • Good knowledge of country roads.
  • Knowing what to do in an accident or emergency.
  • Willingness for continuous improvement (driving skills deteriorate with time; possession of driving license of itself does not necessarily imply such competence).

Driving for work often entails lone driving without direct supervision from managers or other colleagues for prolonged periods. Drivers may also be required to travel and stay outside a base or find their own accommodation overnight.

Recruitment, Testing and Selecting 

...

Drivers’ competence to drive safely should be assessed at the interview level and/or prior to the allocation of driving tasks. Assessment should take account of the driver’s attitude, road safety knowledge and driving skills at the wheel as well other evidence such as age, experience, accident and enforcement history, including penalty points status and past training record. The following can be used as assessment checklist[5]:

1.  General

  • Years of driving experience.
  • Health issues or regular use of medicines which could affect driving.
  • Conduct a simple eyesight test by having the driver read a license plate number from a distance of 20 meters. When in doubt consult a medical person for a proper eyesight test.
  • Assess knowledge on local driving laws (i.e., maximum speeds in certain location, meaning of particular traffic signal).
  • Ask about previous experience with the type of test vehicle.
  • Familiarity with 4WD controls.
  • Knowledge on basic vehicle service.
  • Good practices to load a vehicle, specifically heavy or hazardous goods.
  • How to react in case of an accident.
  • Use of the Logbook.

2. Vehicle and Driving Test

2.1)  Vehicle check: Assess knowledge on what should be checked before starting the engine, why this should be checked and what should be done when faults are detected. Checks may include engine fluids; tires; spare wheel, jack and tools; looking for stains under the vehicle.

2.2) Before Starting Engine:

  • Adjusts the seating and mirrors (yes/no)
  • Ensures that seat-belts are fastened (yes/no)
  • Is the vehicle out of gear, the clutch lever up and the handbrake on?
  • Checks the instrument panel, lights and indicators (yes/no)
  • Assess the knowledge on the meaning of the instrument panel lights

2.3) After Starting Engine:

  • Listens for abnormal noise (yes/no)
  • Checks the instrument panel, e.g. oil pressure light (yes/no)

2.4) Before Driving:

  • Uses of mirrors and indicators (yes/no)
  • Shows consideration for other traffic (yes/no)
  • Drives off smoothly (yes/no)

2.5) While Driving:

  • Respects the traffic rules and road signs (yes/no)
  • Manoeuvres and control the vehicle correctly (yes/no)
  • Uses mirrors and indicators (yes/no)
  • Uses gears and controls correctly (yes/no)
  • Maintains the right speed considering road condition, load and other traffic (yes/no)
  • Drives defensive (i.e., leaving space between vehicles) (yes/no)
  • Anticipates hazards (yes/no)
  • Shows consideration for other traffic and passengers (yes/no)
  • Shows consideration for the vehicle (i.e., no hard breaking) (yes/no)

2.6) Check Particular Manoeuvres:

  • Emergency stop (Good/Correct/Bad)
  • Hill start (Good/Correct/Bad)
  • Reversing (Good/Correct/Bad)
  • Urban driving (Good/Correct/Bad)
  • Lane changing; overtaking (Good/Correct/Bad)
  • Off-road driving (Good/Correct/Bad)
  • 4W driving (Good/Correct/Bad)

3. Security Awareness

  • Assess knowledge on main driving hazards in the area and measures to mitigate it
  • Handling main present hazards (i.e., checkpoints, car-jacking, crashes, etc.)
  • Behaviour during the assessment (i.e., confident, calm, ability to communicate)

4. Use of Equipment and Tools

  • High-jack
  • Vehicle recovery tools
  • Communications equipment (radio, sat-phone, etc.)
  • Uses equipment while driving (yes/no)

...

Standard Driver Responsibilities [6]

  • Ensure safety and security of the persons and goods being transported.
  • Respect traffic rules.
  • Respect speed limits as defined by the agency.
  • Adapt speed according to the conditions of the road, to the carried load, and pedestrian on streets.
  • Wear safety belt at all times and ensure all passengers do the same.
  • Use correct and secure loading for transported goods, and ensuring cargo is tied down.
  • Properly report and notify any mechanical problems.
  • Update daily logbooks.
  • Take care of the tools and spare parts in the car.
  • Ensure cleanliness of the car.
  • Proper notification of accidents, break downs, or other incidents.

...

Fitness to Drive and Medical Clearance [7]

Driving a motor vehicle is a complex task requiring perception, good judgement, responsiveness, and reasonable physical capability. A range of medical conditions, as well as some medical treatments, may impair driving ability. Common examples include blackouts or fainting, sleep disorders, vision problems, diabetes, epilepsy, psychiatric disorders, heart disease, and age-related decline.

It is advised that professional drivers pass a fitness testevery test every year and to install bi-annual checks for staff that drives occasionally. All staff should be advised to undertake a health check whenever they suspect they have a problem. Eye tests should be carried out by qualified optometrists, and should include a test of the driver’s horizontal and vertical range of vision.

...

Below is a template weekly movement plan [9]:

Below, a daily movement plan template:

...

A typical road-book will have the following example outline [10]:

ROAD:

Blantyre - Lilongwe

Duration:

4h 30min

LAST UPDATE: 24/5/2010




Distance:

305 Km


LOCATION

CONTIN. TIME

CONTIN. KM

GPS

Comms coverage

Remarks

Blantyre

0:00

0 km




Round about

0:10

7 km




Lunzu

0:17

15 km



trading centre

Lirangwe

0:31

31 km



trading centre

Mdeka

0:40

42 km




Zalewa

0:48

52 km



police station

Cross M1 - M6

0:49

53 km




Phalula

1:09

81 km




Senzani

1:20

99 km




Manjawira

1:25

108 km




Chingen

1:30

115 km



police station + 1st petrol station

Cross M1 / M5 / M8





Kampebuza

1:48

137 km



trading centre


1:58

147 km



Border Ntcheu DC

Ntcheu

2:01

149 km



Capital District - Hospital DC

Tsangano

2:20

158 km



Police station + border Malawi-Moç

Lizulu

2:46

195 km



Trading centre

Bembeki

2:54

207 km



Diversion secondary Rd to Mangochi

Dedza

3:05

219 km



Police station + petrol station

Chimbiya

3:35

243 km



Trading centre

Kampata

3:55

272 km




Nathenje

4:04

283 km



Customs police

Nanjiri

4:12

292 km



Trading centre


4:16

295 km



Border Lilongwe DC

Mitundu

4:18

297 km



Police station + petrol station

Lilongwe

4:30

305 km



Town entry

...

It is recommended to calculate the consumption after each refill. To make the calculation for a consumption in litter per litre per 100 Km:

  1. Take the distance between 2 fill-ups.

2. Distance at the last fill-up minus the distance at the previous fill-up: 

2,046 - 1,380 = 666 Km

3. Quantity Fuel put in the tank in the last fill-up:

80 litterslitres

4. Fuel consumption per 100 Km is:

80/666 x 100 = 12 L/100 Km

...

Frequency of Preventative Maintenance [13]

Preventative maintenance starts with daily and weekly checks. These inspections are the responsibility of the driver with the goal of proactively identify possible mechanical issues. A recommended preventative maintenance schedule is listed below:

...

For an overview of self-managed fuel supplies, please review the section on stocking and managing fuel at the end of this guide.

...

  • Drivers nor passengers should ever admit fault at any location other than safely back at the office/compound with a security officer present. If a driver or vehicle is at fault, it should be settled by insurance.
  • National regulations may require a vehicle to come to a full stop and wait for a police report before a vehicle can move after an accident. The need to stop should be context specific, however - if the area is unsafe, large crowds are gathering, or local law doesn't require it, vehicle may choose to move to a safer location.
  • Payments and negotiations for damages should never occur on the scene, nor should they be undertaken by the driver or occupants. All exchange of money and negotiations should occur in a safe location, and between authorised persons following the regulations of the law and respective insurance companies.

...

  • UNECE Road Safety

Special

...

Special Movements

Special movements vehicle movements that require special planning and organisation.

...

Movements in Unknown Areas

  • Organise the planned movement well in advance.
  • Minimise the number of passengers.
  • Define the roles and responsibilities among the team members. Ensure that at least one driver plus a passenger are in each vehicle.
  • Communicate with relevant stakeholders in the area and assess their capacity to deliver assistance in case of need. Inform them about the journey schedule and itinerary.
  • Assistance may be unavailable: bring vehicle recovery kit. A second vehicle is highly recommended in order to provide assistance in case of severe breakdown.
  • Resources could be scarce: bring food and water.
  • Depending on the duration of the journey and if overnights are possible, consider bringing additional fuel and the appropriate number of sleeping sets.
  • Assess communication networks in the areas of the planned movement
  • Bring several communication devices using different technologies.
  • Ensure one person is monitoring the movement and recording all milestones through the planned journey. Allocate a back-up for this person.

Convoy Movements


  • Define positioning within the convoy, especially the first and the last car in the convoy.
  • Define the distance between convoy elements.
  • Allocate sufficient time for preparation before departure.
  • Agree on basic procedures to be applicable by the vehicles to ensure certain discipline within the convoy: departure, stop-over and contingency plans for common scenarios: vehicle breakdown, accident, checkpoints, etc.
  • Define which are the communication means internally and external to the convoy. Agree on the hierarchies.
  • Compile a vehicles list, drivers list, passengers list and any other list that could be useful during the journey.

Movement of Dangerous Goods


Transport of Valuable Assets


  • Be discrete. Don’t disclose the nature of the movement.
  • Inform the occupants of the vehicle about the nature of the movement, but not in advance. Give them the chance to decline the assignment and remain at departure point if not comfortable.
  • Avoid regularly scheduled movements, schedule for different days and different hours.
  • Consider organising as part of a convoy.
  • Reduce the number of stopovers to those strictly necessary.

Transport of Special Passengers (patients, kids, human remains, etc.)


  • Ensure that the vehicle is fit for purpose and has the necessary equipment to transport the specific passengers.
  • Have clear rules on who is allowed to travel and in which conditions: who authorises the passenger, how much luggage is allowed, safety considerations, point(s) of destination, etc.
  • Brief passengers about the movement: schedule, itinerary, stopovers, etc. Consider including information about the return trip.
  • If minors are transported, they should be always accompanied by an adult.

Ambulance Services


  • Ensure that the vehicle is fit for purpose and has the necessary equipment and medical supplies to transport patients.
  • Children patients should always be accompanied by an adult.
  • One medical staff should be present during the transfer in case medical needs are required.
  • Provide basic PPE and Infection Control SOPs and training to the staff working in the ambulance to avoid cross infection from transported patients.
  • If the patient is seriously ill, inform the receiving medical facility in advance that the patient being transferred.
  • If providing oxygen to the patient, for safety purposes, oxygen concentrators are a preferred option rather than Oxygen cylinders.

Armoured Vehicles (AVs)


  • Ensure that the vehicle is fit for purpose and is armoured according to the threats present in the area of operation: armoured steel floor, armoured rear cargo area, etc.
  • Technical specifications should be provided by a subject matter expert.
  • Consider import and export restrictions, and any laws regarding use of the vehicle around the planned area of movement.
  • Ensure that drivers have gone through specific training programs and certification required for AVs.
  • The costs of managing a fleet of AV increases significantly compared with a fleet of regular vehicles.
  • Maintenance of AVs requires specialised knowledge and capacity as vehicle configuration differs from regular vehicles, especially the electronic components. Spare parts are often manufacturer specific, and can be very hard to come by.
  • All communication equipment must be operable from the inside, which may impact some communications devices such as regular mobile phones. Additional communication equipment and specific installation and setup will be required.
  • Disposal at end of life is not easy and should be planned far in advance.

...

In addition to vehicle fleet management, other aspects may be considered when managing a fleet of vehicles. The most pertinent could be the management of special stocks and the environmental impact of the fleet. When managing a fleet of vehicles, it may be useful to stock particular commodities such as fuel and spare parts. The information in this section is complementary to the chapters on sections on physical stock management and on dangerous goods. Rather than focusing in safety issues, the content below is more related to the good conditioning and management of stocks for optimal use:

...

Managing a fleet of self-owned vehicles in contexts where a supply chain remains uncertain imposes a high degree of autonomy in terms of spare parts availability. The risks of not having spares at the wrong moment must be assessed. The following matrix can be adapted and used as guidance for decision taking.


Image RemovedImage Added

Also consider the reliability of local markets: the cost of original parts purchased locally can be double or even triple that of buying internationally. Generally, most of the parts available locally consist of high demand parts such as filters or brake linings, while less demanded parts may be less available but just as important. Some consumables - such as lubricants and tires - can be easily found locally.

...

Templates and Tools

TEMPLATE - Accident Incident Report Form

TEMPLATE - Daily Movement Plan

TEMPLATE - Daily Cargo Vehicle Checklist

TEMPLATE - Discharge of Liability

TEMPLATE - Fuel Consumption Log

TEMPLATE - Fuel Voucher - External

TEMPLATE - Fuel Voucher  V.2- Internal

TEMPLATE - Maintenance Request

...

Guide - Vehicle Servicing

TEMPLATE - Accident Incident Report Form

TEMPLATE - Daily Movement Plan

TEMPLATE - Discharge of Liability

Full Template Package

Sites and Resources


...

References 

[1] Adapted from MSF Checklist for vehicle rental.

[2] Adapted from MSF Guideline for vehicle rental.

[3] ULS, Universal Logistics Standards, https://handbook.ul-standards.org

[4] Fleet Forum, https://knowledge.fleetforum.org/knowledge-base/article/developing-ability-to-scale-up

[5] Adapted from MSF Drivers Recruitment Test

[6] Extracted from MSF Logbook

[7] Extracted from Fleet Forum, https://knowledge.fleetforum.org/knowledge-base/article/minimum-standards-for-fitness-to-drive

[8] Transport request extracted from Action against Hunger Logistics Kit.

[9] Weekly plan template extracted from Action against Hunger Logistics Kit.

[10] Roadbook template extracted from MSF OCBA Logistics Library

[11] https://knowledge.fleetforum.org/knowledge-base/article/fleet-monthly-report

[12] Fleet Forum, Managing Crash Reporting & Analysis, https://knowledge.fleetforum.org/knowledge-base/article/managing-crash-reporting-analysis

[13] Adapted from MSF Vehicle maintenance logbook.

[14] Global Status on Road Safety, WHO, 2018 (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241565684)

[15] https://www.humanitarianoutcomes.org/AWSR2020

[16] https://knowledge.fleetforum.org/knowledge-base/article/managing-crash-reporting-analysis-part-ii-how-to-report-a-crash