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4 Wheel Drive (4WD) vehicle: specific type of vehicles able to transfer traction from the engine to the front and rear axis, enabling the grip to its 4 wheels. Also referred as “all terrain” vehicles.
Vehicle Logbook: Records book for a unique vehicle. It is always kept in the vehicle glove box compartment under the responsibility of the driver assigned to the vehicle. Normally it has two different parts: one to register all repairs and maintenance activities and a second to register mileage and fuel consumption.
Scope and Definition
Humanitarian action frequently requires vehicle-based mobility work and often demands the management of a fleet of vehicles. Vehicle fleet management refers to the knowledge and practices to manage a set of vehicles to achieve a particular operational purpose. Fleet management allows agencies to minimize risks, reduce costs and improve efficiency related to transportation of goods and people. In addition, it ensures compliance with local legislation and duty of care.
As to “road transport”, it is common that humanitarian agencies manage a fleet of vehicles (cars, vans or motorbikes) to transport people. Agencies specialized in humanitarian logistics, may also have to manage a fleet of trucks to regularly transport goods, water or construction materials. This chapter mainly focuses in the management of light vehicle fleets used for the transport of people. For complementary considerations and technical information related to cargo transport, such as cargo configuration, route planning and scheduling or documentation for goods transport, please refer to the Road Transport chapter.
It is important to keep in mind that the aim of managing a fleet of vehicles encompasses the transport of goods or people to achieve certain operational objectives, in a safe way, optimizing the use of resources and complying with the national laws and regulations. Fleet management must consider permanently these key elements and should reconsider its own reason to be if any of them is not present or can’t be achieved.
If managing a fleet is not an optimal solution for a humanitarian agency, other alternatives should be contemplated.
Alternatives to Vehicle Fleet Management
In particular circumstances, managing a fleet of vehicles for the given transport requirements could end up being inefficient, expensive, administratively difficult or dangerous. Staff movement can be also enabled by combining transportation services from public and private transportation providers, in a mode similar to “Mobility as a service” (MaaS).
The topic on rental of light vehicles (with or without driver) is covered below.
Fleet Management Process
Vehicle fleet management can be a simple or complex working process depending on the number and diversity of vehicles and the intensity of their use. Whatever the scale of the fleet, the following management stages should be considered when coming to a fleet management process:
These different stages are developed in detail in later in this section.
In a different perspective, fleet management can also be broken down into four basic components: (1) drivers, (2) vehicles, (3) users and (4) movements. Following this logic, vehicle fleet management can also be looked at as several work streams that are simultaneously executed by one or several people:
In addition, all these workflows should be conveniently monitored, individually and as a whole (fleet), ensuring its due performance and proper balance and adjusting when required: overuse of resources and mechanical failure, burnout of drivers and bad behaviour, or discontent among the passengers are typical symptoms of fleet disfunctions that should be addressed. This would correspond to a fifth basic work stream: Monitoring.
Fleet Management Functions
A fleet management process and workflows can help defining a typical set of roles and responsibilities with a stake in fleet management. Combining or dividing tasks in one or several profiles will depend on the scale of the fleet, the intensity of its use and the given operational context. For example, in a field office with a fleet of 1 to 6 vehicles, and an outsourced garage, one single person could supervise all workflows and a team of 6 to 8 drivers. If the number of vehicles and drivers is significantly increased, or the mechanical garage used to service the vehicles is self-managed by the agencies, new and specialized profiles could be added to the team.
In addition, and if applicable, the fleet manager should define the order for spare parts, and assess and identify potential local providers.
The Fleet Management Cycle
Fleet management can be looked at as a sequential set of steps. This overview is especially advisable the scale of a fleet is large and when an agency owns of most of the fleet related assets and services.
2. Selection and acquisition
5. Maintenance and repair
7. Decommissioning and replacing
Fleet planning a key strategic activity used to shape the fleet and the corresponding management model, all to support adequate and sustainable solutions to organizational needs. Fleet planning encompasses the operational, technical, administrative and financial dimensions of induvial organizations, and therefore tends to be very organizational specific.
Costs to consider when making vehicle related decisions include acquisition costs, importation costs, fuel costs, insurance, repairs, maintenance costs, labor costs, toll and parking costs and disposal costs among others. The investment required for the equipment to be installed in the vehicle, such as communications or safety equipment, shouldn’t be neglected when budgeting. If organizations do not take all the costs related to owning a fleet of vehicles (when calculating their fleet costs), it can lead to a series of challenges (e.g. insufficient funds to maintain and repair the vehicles, to hire a fleet manager or to organize driver training.
Vehicle Selection and Acquisition
Basic considerations when it comes to choosing the most suitable passenger vehicle are related with its intended purpose, number of passengers requiring simultaneous use, and length and frequency of the journeys. Three main options are to be considered at this first stage: motorbike, light vehicle or van/minibus.
Renting vehicles (using local rental providers)
Driver Selection and Management
Drivers are an essential component to self-managed fleets, equally as important and the vehicles themselves. Even if an organization has a perfectly maintained fleet, if they are using poor quality drivers, or don’t invest in training drivers, then accidents, damages, cargo loss and possibly issues with fines or lawsuits may occur.
Insurance policy should be reviewed to adapt coverage to the organization’s needs. If necessary, a clear policy on covering repair costs should be established and accepted by the staff.
Commissioning refers to the process of bringing the vehicle and users up to the required point of readiness for movements implementation. Commissioning can encompass the following matters:
Compliance and Administration
There are certain liabilities related to the use of vehicles that must be considered by any agency managing a fleet of vehicles.
Whether the vehicles being used are owned, hired or are managed by a third-party, it is important to ensure that all local laws are adhered to. There are different norms that are commonly applicable:
|The use and ownership of motor vehicles are strongly regulated by most countries. All vehicles must be officially allocated to a physical person or organization who will be liable for any duties or responsibilities linked to the vehicle. It is therefore important to go through the required registration process when acquiring a new vehicle or when decommissioning an old one.|
Depending on the local regulation, it may be common that every motor vehicle to be used on the road pays an annual circulation licence Fee. The fee is normally proportional to the gross weight or the engine power of the vehicle, but can be specific to its purpose and type of loads such as oversized or hazardous goods.
|Insurance is a legal requirement for motor vehicles which aims to provide financial coverage against physical damage or bodily injury resulting from traffic collisions and against liability that could also arise from incidents in a vehicle. Vehicle insurance may additionally cover theft, weather or natural disasters and damage sustained by colliding with stationary objects. Vehicles should be insured to at least the minimum required by the local law. Different organisations will have internal policies regarding the extent to which their own vehicles should be insured. This must be established according to the operational context and a risk assessment.|
|Vehicles may also require a technical clearance certifying that the vehicle is safe for circulation in public spaces. Technical clearance may include environmental considerations such as type of fuel used or levels of CO2 emitted by the exhaust. Technical inspections can be related to the type of vehicle and its purpose, certifying the maximum permissible passengers and weights in terms of gross vehicle weight, axle weight and payload.|
Fitness to Drive and Medical Clearance
Tracking devices are another option to monitor movements. Tracking devices vary in their functionality, but generally they gather information such as vehicle’s position, speed, heading and other data using GPS, sensors and other accessories and sends it via mobile phone or satellite networks to a remote server enabling authorized fleet managers to monitor performance in real time. The information collected is generally used to improve driving patterns, movements plans or fleet performance. In addition, some tracking devices can also send alerts to specific phone numbers when a predefined event happens: high speeds, location reached, or even crashes. Tracking devices do not substitute communication devices and in all cases, an operational communication device should accompany the vehicle movement.
Fleet Performance Monitoring
Fleet Management should contribute to the cost efficiency and effectiveness of the organization while achieving its operational goals. Capturing data, analysing data and taking informed decisions is a basic three step process to monitor and improve the fleets' performance.
Mini service ‘A’ : at km
In addition, collecting regular feedback from the users of the service may provide qualitative information from the service and the level of satisfaction with aspects like movement planning, driving practices, driver behavior and service mindset, safety, etc.
Vehicle Condition and Maintenance
Good vehicle condition is key for the achievement of fleet management objective: attaining operational objectives, in a safe way, optimizing the use of resources and complying with the national laws and regulations. Good vehicle condition is achieved through appropriate use and maintenance.
Self-managed fuel bladders
End of Life: Decommissioning and Replacing
Managing the entire vehicle lifecycle is essential to achieve an efficient use of resources, including the eventual decommissioning or disposal of vehicles. It is preferable to sell and/or replace vehicles before they become expensive to maintain, and so that their optimal resale or replacement value can be achieved.
As part of the decommissioning process, agencies should remember to recover and reassign all the vehicle equipment that could be reused: communications equipment, safety material, recovery kits, identification/visibility, etc. Agencies should also remember to inform authorities and insurance companies once vehicles are no longer in use.
Safety and Security
Duty of Care
Whether the vehicles are owned or rented, it is an essential requirement to ensure that movements are carried out safely, both for the occupants of the vehicle and for other users of the road. It should be noted that road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death globally among people between the ages of 5 and 29. Furthermore, of the total number of deaths from traffic accidents worldwide (1.35 million per year), 90% occurs in low- and middle-income countries.
humanitarian actors and convoys. Although security management often falls under the responsibility of other management bodies, it is encouraged to exchange regular information and to integrate as much as possible safety and security procedures into fleet management working processes.
Basic Minimum Standards
To ensure that movements are carried out safely, logistics must actively work on three key elements:
(3) The driver and team's competence encompasses: personal skills, physical condition, knowledge of the environment and awareness on potential hazards and the ability to properly manage possible critical situations: such as weather events, accidents, check-points, demonstrations, harassment.
Agencies are strongly advised to design and implement an integral management system for crashes. The system should include: reporting mechanisms, basics on crash management and analysis and reporting on road crashes. When possible and available, all these should be coordinated together with security managers.
- UNECE Road Safety Special Envoy
- WHO Road Safety Strategies
- WHO: “Save Lives” A Road Safety Technical Package
- FIA Foundation
- UN Road Safety Week
- Occupational Road & Fleet Safety Guide
Special movements are all those vehicle movement that require special planning and organisation.
Movements in Unknown Areas
· Organize the planned movement well in advance.
· Minimize the number of passengers
· Define the roles and responsibilities among the team members. Ensure that at least 1 driver plus a passenger are in each vehicle.
· Communicate with relevant stakeholders in the area and assess their capacity to deliver assistance in case of need. Inform them about the journey schedule and itinerary.
· Assistance may be unavailable: bring vehicle recovery kit. A second vehicle is highly recommended in order to provide assistance in case of severe breakdown.
· Resources could be scarce: bring food and water.
· Depending on the duration of the journey and if overnights are possible, consider bringing additional fuel and the appropriate number of sleeping sets.
· Assess communication networks in the areas of the planned movement
· Bring several communication devices using different technologies.
· Ensure one person is monitoring the movement and recording all milestones through the planned journey. Allocate a back-up for this person.
· Define positioning within the convoy, especially the first and the last car in the convoy.
· Define the distance between convoy elements.
· Allocate sufficient time for preparation before departure.
· Agree on basic procedures to be applicable by the vehicles to ensure certain discipline within the convoy: departure, stop-over and contingency plans for common scenarios: vehicle breakdown, accident, checkpoints, etc.
· Define which are the communication means internally and external to the convoy. Agree on the hierarchies.
· Compile a vehicles list, drivers list, passengers list and any other list that could be useful during the journey.
Movement of Dangerous Goods
Transport of Valuable Assets
· Be discrete. Don’t disclose the nature of the movement.
· Inform the occupants of the vehicle about the nature of the movement, but not in advance. Give them the chance to decline the assignment and remain at departure point if not comfortable.
· Avoid regularly scheduled movements, schedule for different days and different hours.
· Consider organizing as part of a convoy.
· Reduce the number of stopovers to those strictly necessary.
Transport of special passengers (patients, kids, human remains, etc.)
· Ensure that the vehicle is fit for purpose and has the necessary equipment to transport the specific passengers.
· Have clear rules on who is allowed to travel and in which conditions: who authorizes the passenger, how much luggage, safety considerations, point(s) of destination, etc.
· Brief passengers about the movement: schedule, itinerary, stopovers, etc. Consider including information about the return trip.
· If minors are transported, they should be always accompanied by an adult.
· Ensure that the vehicle is fit for purpose and has the necessary equipment and medical supplies to transport patients.
· Children patients should be always accompanied by an adult.
· One medical staff should be present during the transfer in case medical needs are required.
· Provide basic PPE and Infection Control SOPs and training to the staff working in the ambulance to avoid cross infection from transported patients.
· If the patient is seriously ill, inform in advance the medical facility receiving the patient being transferred.
· If providing oxygen to the patient, for safety purposes, oxygen concentrators are a preferred option rather than Oxygen cylinders.
Armoured Vehicles (AVs)
· Ensure that the vehicle is fit for purpose and is armoured according to the threats present in the area of operation: armoured steel floor, armoured rear cargo area, etc.
· Technical specifications should be provided by a subject matter expert.
· Consider import and export restriction, and any laws regarding use of the vehicle around the planned area of movement.
· Ensure that drivers have gone through specific training programs and certification required for AVs.
· The costs of managing a fleet of AV increases significantly compared with a fleet of regular vehicles.
· Maintenance requires specialized knowledge and capacity as vehicle configuration differs from regular vehicles, especially the electronic components. Spare parts are often manufacturer specific, and can be very hard to come by.
· All communication equipment must be operable from the inside autonomously, which may impact some communications devices such as regular GSM phones. Additional communication equipment and specific installation and setup will be required.
· Disposal at end of life is not easy and should be planned way in advance.
In addition to vehicle fleet management, other aspects may be considered when managing a fleet of vehicles. The most pertinent could be the management of especial stocks and the environmental impact of the fleet.
Special Stock Requirements
When managing a fleet of vehicles, it may be convenient to stock particular commodities such as fuel and spare parts. The information in this section is complementary to the chapters on sections on Physical Stock Management and on Dangerous Goods. Rather than focusing in safety issues, the content below is more related to the good conditioning and management of stocks for optimal use:
It is common to use the term “fuel” to refer to different products. Furthermore, equal terms in different languages refer to different product types. The following translation sheet, illustrates the basics on Fuel terminology:
Bottled gas for fridge, heating, etc.
Bottled gas for fridge, heating, etc.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Gas used for car fuel
Very volatile, fluid, blue colour, same smell as petrol. Very flammable, explosive. Can be used in apetrol engine with 3% oil added
oct. ind. 95-99
Volatile, fluid, colourless (or almost). Very flammable, explosive. Cannot be replaced by diesel, but can replace Avgas in some aircraft. Various octane indices between regular and super
Turbine engined aircraft
Same as for Paraffin but with aeronautical specifications: filtering, packing and storing.
KEROSENE (Lamp oil)
KEROSENE (Lamp oil)
Lamps, fridges, burner, etc.
Colourless, specific smell. Fuel for so-called “lamp oil” equipment
Greasy, yellowish, frequently coloured, heavy smell. When pure, solidifies at -5°C and requires an additive (or 20% lamp oil). This also acts as the injection pump lubricant.
FUEL, FIOUL, MAZOUT
FUEL OIL, PARAFFIN
Same as diesel without additives for low temperatures and lubrication
Greasy, different viscosities for different uses
Heavy combustible for marine engines and power plants
Adapted from MSF
Once organizations decide to hold a stock of spare parts, they should define the type and quantities of each part required. This can be calculated based on the scale of the fleet, the frequency and types of the preventative maintenance services and the average number of kilometres completed per month per vehicle.
Managing Environmental Impact
Logistics teams must guarantee an efficient use of resources, optimizing costs and reducing the environmental impact of movements.