See below a mode comparison matrix for different modes.
Cost per kg
Limited and fixed infrastructure
Short and medium distances from neighbouring country to operation site; internal transport for short and medium distances
Large consignments from port of discharge to inland operation site; ecological
Large quantities; less urgent; pre positioning phase; long distances with no time constraint
Emergency phase; expensive goods; fragile or perishable goods; cold chain; no alternative option; small shipments; e.g. diplomatic pouches; long distance with time constraint.
Relatively fast; no transshipment; direct delivery; flexible; cost
Economical; large loading capacity; range and speed (context depending)
Economical; large loading capacity; no restriction on loading capacity; cheap
Fast; reliable; limited losses; direct; easy tracking and tracing
Roads may be dangerous or blocked; sometimes driver nationality or vehicle registration not acceptable
Difficulty finding freight cars; frequent delays; transshipping required; inflexible; limited tracking
Slow; transshipping at ports; use as a second means of transport at high volumes; higher theft risk in ports; not flexible
Expensive; restricted to journey’s between airports; restricted loading capacity; special considerations (dangerous goods, size limits, packing, etc.)