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It is recommended to calculate the consumption after each refill. To make the calculation for a consumption in litter per 100 Km:

  1. Take the distance between 2 fill-ups.

2. Distance at the last fill-up minus the distance at the previous fill-up: 

2,046 - 1,380 = 666 Km

3. Quantity Fuel put in the tank in the last fill-up:

80 litters

4. Fuel consumption per 100 Km is:

80/666 x 100 = 12 L/100 Km

Other Data Sources

Information on vehicle usage that can assist calculating the availability rate or the utilisation rate could be extracted from the movement planning and workshop records.


Good vehicle condition is key for the achievement of in proper fleet management objective: attaining operational objectives, , helping attain operational goals in a safe waymanner, optimising the use of resources and complying with the national laws and regulations. Good vehicle condition is achieved through appropriate vehicle use and maintenance.

Generally, maintenance can be approached in two different ways: preventative and reactive.

  • A preventative scheme consists in scheduling periodic maintenance services with certain periodicity to anticipate malfunctioning.
  • A reactive scheme consists in of waiting for a breakdown to happen to repair before repairing it.

Vehicle fleet management aims to make transport available for the maximum amount of possible time. This is achieved by (1) planning maintenance interventions and (2) limiting the downtime to a minimum.

It is always inconvenient bad to lose the use of a vehicle for a day. But when vehicle maintenance is scheduled in advance, it can be arranged teams or staff can plan around the absence to reduce impact with other activities requiring the use of the vehicle.

Furthermore, running a vehicle without preventive maintenance results inefficient in inefficiencies because the subsequent breakdowns tend to cost significantly more and the repairs take much longer to be achieved. In addition, certain complete. Certain breakdowns can affect the vehicle reliability and consequently the user’s safety. Therefore, it Repairs and maintenance should be timely done without delay to keep the vehicle in a trustworthy state during its whole life cycle.

Frequency of Preventative Maintenance [13]

Preventative maintenance starts with


daily and weekly checks. These inspections are


the responsibility of the driver


with the goal of proactively identify possible mechanical issues.


A recommended preventative maintenance schedule is listed below:

Before starting the vehicle engine for first use in the day, the driver should take 10 minutes to check:

  • Engine oil level.
  • Coolant level.
  • Brake and clutch fluid level.
  • Windscreen washer water level.
  • Cleanness of radiator.
  • Condition of all tyres, including the spare tyre (pressure by sight, cracks on both sides).
  • Possible leaks under the car.

After starting the vehicle, the driver should listen


for abnormal noises, check indicators, lighting and dashboard warning lights, and look for the presence of all required equipment.


Once per week (recommended at the end of the week), the driver should take 1 hour to:

  • Clean the vehicle inside and outside.
  • Clean the air filter.
  • Check the battery (proper fixation and water level).
  • Check power steering oil level.
  • Check steering wheel free play.
  • Check tyre pressure and condition of the tyres (see tyre pressure table).
  • Check for presence of valve caps.
  • Check and clean front and rear axle breather.
  • Check exhaust pipe and silencer condition and fixation.
  • Check the springs and all bushes from the front and rear suspension.
  • Check shock absorbers (check bushes and no leaks).
  • Check front and rear stabiliser bar bushes control.
  • Check functioning of doors, locks, seat belts and (warning) lights.

In case of any problemidentified problems, the driver should record it them in the vehicle logbook and inform the fleet manager to , who will evaluate the scale of the damage and to plan all relevant arrangements.

Besides the regular checks under the driver’s responsibility, specific maintenance services are regularly required to keep the vehicle up to a good functioning standard. Different parts or fluids in the vehicle require different frequency for its replacement: for instance, engine oil requires being changed changing with a higher frequency than the axles oil. Other interventions, like changing the brakes pads or replacing the tyres will be done according to its the part’s current condition. A regular sequence for vehicle service and mechanical revision is normally used. This helps to standardise all the actions required in regular maintenance allowing services planning and rationalising the use of spare parts.Check

Fleet managers should check with the vehicle manufacturer about what the regular maintenance is required by for the vehicle and the recommended frequency for repairs and maintenance. The maintenance schedule is usually available in the vehicle manual, but should is usually also be available online. The periodicity frequency of maintenance should be adapted according to the conditions of use specific to every operational environment. Periodic , and periodic maintenance should be conducted of a qualified mechanic.


In general, the choice between setting up and managing a workshop or using a mechanic services provider is based on considerations of:

  • Size The size of the fleet and the scope of maintenance : determine requirements, based on what is needed, for how many vehicles, and how often and what tasks need to be performed.
  • Availability and quality: evaluate the The availability and quality of the available service providers and spare parts.
  • Cost The cost of every alternative solution.


A mixed solution where the basic services are performed in a self-managed workshop and the more complex interventions are outsourced is often a suitable solution when operating in remote locations , where services and infrastructure are limited and the distance to the closest mechanic workshop makes frequent use impractical.

Although evaluating the "availability" could be the easiest part, assessing the quality of the service can be difficult. Some of the following things could be assessedused to assess service providers:

  • Deviations from initial diagnosis, repair costs estimate and time.
  • References from other clients.
  • Number of ad-hoc repairs attributable to lack of maintenance, that or were required despite of making the recommended regular maintenance service.
  • Recurrent faults in a particular vehicle. If a vehicle is brought to service with specific issues, these should be solved (preferably "permanently") when the service is done.
  • Number of vehicles reaching their estimated lifespans. All vehicles following the recommended regular maintenance should be in reliable running condition until their normal lifespan.

In addition, some basics could be assessed in a visit to the workshop premises:

  • Safety and security, with special regard attention to access control.
  • Availability of specific tools and their safe use: suitable tools in good condition : i.e.,  and their safe use: tyre assembly, use of press, welding, power equipment, grinding wheel, etc.
  • Availability of specific premises and capacity to work in on simultaneous lanes for light vehicles, trucks, motorbikes, generators.
  • Type of mechanical interventions possible: Engine, body, paint, electrical, vehicle computer programming.
  • Availability, sourcing, and control over spare parts, or any kept on stock.
  • Cleanliness and general condition of the workshop.
  • Working conditions and care for occupational risks.
  • Procedures with used parts and general and hazardous waste management.

Costs should never be the guiding principle: - quality of service is paramount. Running costs, and especially the initial investment for an owned workshop, can be considerable. The time period to be covered by any work shop self-managed workshop is of key importance as the time to recover the investment can be significant.

If the final decision is to outsource maintenance, it is important to carry periodic assessments of the quality of service and to keep records of all repairs and maintenance. It is recommended for the assigned driver to be present during the whole repair process and avoid overnights overnight stays for vehicles if the premises are not considered secure. It is recommended to request a visual inspection of all the parts that have been replaced and invoiced.