For information on International Trade, see International Commercial Terms used in international contracts of sale: INCOTERMS 2000 , INCO terms explanation, INCOTERMS narrative, INCOTERMS practical application chart.
- carrier characteristics and capacity;
- proven efficiency;
- timely delivery;
- known integrity, reputation and reliability;
- good relationships with others carriers;
- responsiveness to urgent needs of the organisation (if previously contracted);
- financial viability to cover costs of providing the service;
- adequate communication systems to facilitate tracking to the vehicle;
- assets to safeguard organisation cargo;
- ability to provide a multi-modal service, if need be; and
- presentation of timely reports and correct invoices.
- maximising vehicle payload (by maximising vehicle fill out and back) and maximising vehicle utilisation (by maximising number of loaded journeys per vehicle);
- minimising distance (e.g. by minimising overlapping deliveries) and minimising time (e.g. by minimising non moving time); and
- meeting customer requirements, in terms of cost, service and time and meeting legal requirements, in terms of vehicle capacity and driver's hours.
The nature of the movement can be split into two basic types:
See below a mode comparison matrix for different modes.
Table 1: Criteria of different modes of transport, from Fritz Institute
The specification of the vehicle body will vary according to the goods or materials being carried and security. There are many variants of body type available; a description of the main body types is shown below.
Table 2: Selecting the body type.
- normally a licence to operate the vehicle on a public highway is required;
- for larger trucks there may be an additional licence fee to be paid;
- vehicles should be insured to at least the minimum required by law; different organisations will have internal policies regarding the extent to which their own vehicles should be insured; and
- vehicles may also require documentation relating to the maximum permissible weights in terms of gross vehicle weight, axle weight and payload.
The Through B/L is issued when a shipper wishes the carrier or shipping line to arrange for transport to a destination beyond the port of discharge. The through B/L, in addition to the agreement to carry goods from port to port, includes a further journey (by sea or land) from the port of ship's destination to a distant place (for instance, a destination inland instead of a port). See INCOTERMS 2000 , INCO terms explanation, INCOTERMS narrative, INCOTERMS practical application chart.
- Rail transport
Rail transport is a safe land transportation system when compared to other forms of transportation. Rail transportation is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is often less flexible and more capital-intensive than highway transportation is, when lower traffic levels are considered. Rail transport costs less than air or road transport. It is very suitable for the movement of large load sizes over longer distances, but it has the following disadvantages: