Evaluation Committee/ Panel
A committee made up of an odd number of members (at least three) with the necessary technical and administrative expertise to give an informed opinion on tenders or grant applications.
Short for “Best Value for Money”; the best combination available of monetary and non-monetary requirements that an organisation can get from its selection of suppliers.
Short for “Humanitarian Procurement Centres”. Are not-for-profit organisations specialised in the technical and commercial management of supplies and services necessary for the implementation of humanitarian actions. They can provide technical assistance in procurement or supply pre-established stocks, purchasing or logistics capacity
Short for “International Organisation for Standardisation”. An independent entity that has been thinking and standardising the formulas that describes the best way of doing something.
Guarantee that a product and/or company has followed a quality process.
The time between initiation of the acquisition of the goods and services up to the time of delivery.
An essential component of context analysis, collecting information that will be useful to program the intervention and how to implement it.
Activities and means to identify suppliers in a specific market.
Procedure without prior publication of a procurement notice, in which the Contracting Authority consults the candidate or candidates of its choice and negotiates the terms of the contract with one or more of them.
The process of identifying and obtaining goods and services
The specific function associated with the actual buying of goods and services from suppliers.
Short for “Quality Assurance”; A procedure to ensure the quality of products or services by preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering products or services to beneficiaries.
Short for “Quality Control”; checks to ensure quality in a product or a service.
All the elements and characteristics which constitute the product and which contribute to its compliance with the defined technical specifications.
Identifying and working with appropriate suppliers.
Intellectual and non-intellectual services.
Segregation of Duties
Principle by which must have more than one person to complete a procurement activity.
Short for “Total Cost of Ownership”; Cost involved in buying and using a product over time.
The overall process of putting a contract out for tender, starting with the publication of a procurement notice and ending with the award of the tendered contract.
The design and/or the execution of a rehabilitation, construction, etc. in accordance with the previously specified requirements.
It is common to see the procurement as a bottle neck and a time-consuming activity, usually associated with delays and strict bureaucracy. However, procurement activities can be agile and practical if agencies understand the roll that procurement plays, why it exists, what the guiding principles are, and how to manage procedures. Through procurement activities agencies acquire the needed supplies and service to perform our daily organisational activities.
Procurement is the process of identifying and obtaining goods and services. It includes sourcing, purchasing and covers all activities from identifying potential suppliers through to delivery from supplier to the users or beneficiary.
It´s important to note that procurement is not a single action but a process; a series of activities aimed at meeting the needs of humanitarian projects as well as our operation in general. This process is standardised in such a way that it can be replicated it regardless of the place, time or context. At the same time the process should be flexible enough to encompass each of the different challenges that the purchasing manager faces.
The words purchase and procure are frequently used interchangeably; while common using the two words interchangeably is not necessarily accurate. Purchasing is just a part of the procurement process, an important one, but only the specific function associated with the actual buying of goods and services from suppliers. For the sake of this guide, procurement and purchasing will be differentiated along these lines.
There are certain principles that govern the way in which a procurement activity is carried out. These principles are not random or chosen by chance; they are the result experience. Humanitarian actors can have a large financial impact on the contexts in which they work, and procurement plays a major role in that it has to do with the exchange of money, selection of providers, distributions in insecure contexts, and constant exposure to various risks.
A general series of principles have been developed that govern procurement actions, to which the procuring entities are strongly advised to adhere. The ultimate goal of these principles enacting an economic and efficient intervention with the best quality-price ratio.
Best Value for Money
Best Value for Money (BVM) refers to the best combination available of monetary and non-monetary requirements that an organisation can get from its selection of suppliers. It does not mean to achieve the cheapest offer but to balance the attributes such as quality and availability according to the organisation needs.
The combination BVM speaks of are cost, quality and sustainability that best meets the organisation´s requirements.
Those responsible for procurement should look for the lowest overall cost to get the best return of investment.
Supplier selection - and therefore the procurement of products and services - is based on a competitive process. That means that solicitation documents should be issued to several and different suppliers, enabling effective competition. Competition entails:
It is a good practice to give feedback to the non-successful bidders, explaining them the reasons for not being selected to allow them to improve their processes.
Purchases are part of the joint action of many actors - headquarters, project managers, technical services, field staff, suppliers and communities. It is key that each party know the processes associated with achieving procurement objectives. Procedures should be shared both inside and outside the organisation to ensure that each person or group can understand and question. Transparency does not mean that a humanitarian organisation loses independence, but rather that it can reason the actions and clarify guiding principles used in the purchase of goods or services.
Transparency is also an important part of security management, since a perception of partiality or lack of transparency could lead to threats or increase risk for teams in the ground.
It is strongly advised that control measures and procedures should increase proportional to the value the contract or procurement. The higher that value, the more measures, resources, and stricter procedures will be required. Inversely, if the value is reduced procedures should be more lax. This principle forms the base of different procurement procedures.
Humanitarian aid organisations are generally important economic actors in the places in which they operate, due to the high volume of products and services involved in humanitarian operations. Normally aid organisations operate in very small or disrupted markets, so it is advisable to pay attention to the market assessments and keep it in mind in each context analysis.
Humanitarian organisations need to be aware of the local market composition and the different involved actors. When designing and implementing interventions, organisations should assess and analyse local markets and supporting supply chains in order to facilitate their recovery. All potential suppliers have the same tools and information to compete fairly; agencies must be clear in their requirements and criteria applied to all awarded contracts.
Segregation of Duties
Segregation of duties is a core principle of internal control and must be preserved in all procurement actions. According to the principle of segregation of duties, no single individual or team shall control all the stages of procurement process.
For the sake of quality and control, segregating responsibilities during the purchase process helps not only to identify errors by adding review and oversight steps, but also limits the possibility of fraud. Having more than one person involved in the process also helps to protect those with procurement responsibilities from accusations.
A best practice might be the segregation of duties segregation among persons with different points of view, knowledge and ideas. Decisions are more likely to be successful when everyone is informed and in agreement. The table below shows different examples on how to ensure the Segregation of duties:
The person to:
Should not be the only person to:
Request an article and/or fill the PR
Approve the Purchase Order (PO)
Execute the contracting/acquisition procedure
Approve the Purchase Order or the Contract / Framework Agreement
Select the supplier
Approve the Purchase Order or the Contract / Framework Agreement
Approve the Purchase Order (PO)
Receive the goods / services, e.g., Approve a Goods Receipt Note
Execute the contracting/acquisition procedure
Receive the goods / services, e.g., Approve a Goods Receipt Note
Receive the goods / services, e.g., Approve a Goods Receipt Note
Create payment request / Prepare Payment Package / Authorise payment
Save the Children International. Procurement Manual 2.0 01.01.2020.
Humanitarian aid has evolved its own defacto code of conduct. This set of principles has led to the development of multiple norms, or even rules, that agencies observe while implementing programs. There are - for example - codes of conduct, which are understood and signed by all employees which may include rules that humanitarian staff
When possible it is best practice to include ethical requirements in published tenders, and use ethical requirement compliance as part of the selection criteria. Frequently suppliers do not have standard certifications, nor are they used to complying with ethics standards, which is why it is important to conduct a good market analysis. It is also important to conduct regular visits to suppliers premises to evaluate their ways of working.
Each organisation should establish controls to manage and react to misconduct. Applying standards and protocols in relevant ways and in specific operational contexts is an ongoing challenge for humanitarian organisations. These principles of action are usually understood as a guide, and may include the following:
To guide and enforce these principles, specific policies should be drafted, addressing each issue in depth, explaining the why and how, and establishing corrective measures. Among the most common internal policies are:
It is not necessarily enough to ensure that these principles are respected internally; they have to be enforced in the relation with third parties. To facilitate this, it is common for contracts to include specific policies third parties should adhere to. Examples of these policies are:
These policies and feedback mechanisms may also be included or referenced in the Terms and Conditions (TC) attach to any PO, allowing the suppliers to understand their obligations and inform agencies about any potential problems.
Conflict of Interest can be defined as any actual, perceived or potential incompatibility between an employee’s private interests and either his/her official duties or the interests of the organisation. A conflict of interest may include, but it is not limited to:
Examples of Conflicts of Interest:
Aid agencies are encouraged to introduce and follow best practices throughout the procurement process. A general table of accepted best practices can be seen below:
|Ares of Best Practice||Example|
|Working Practices with Suppliers.|
|Avoid excuses among team and employees. Ethics is about doing the "right thing" even beyond the workplace. It is important to be vigilant and not relax working behaviour.|
|Watch for Red Flags. look for possible symptoms of unethical behaviour and watch out for.|
The concept of "market categories" allows a more structured way of compiling and combining purchases due to their nature and specifics, and to ensure that the procurement principles are followed while facilitating the procurement process by establishing standards and tools. In addition, it is possible that the different market categories could have different thresholds. In general, there are four main categories or “markets” humanitarian organisations work with, however variations and additional categories can and do exist.
The goods or supplies category includes the purchase of tangible items and/or their interrelated sets. In general, a market is considered as goods/supplies when there is a transfer of ownership of tangible products.
A product is defined by two elements:
All the costs associated to production, preparation, installation, maintenance and disposal related to the purchased products (total cost of ownership), can be considered as part of goods market if the additional services have been procured, delivered and invoiced together and as long as these costs remain lower compared to the total purchase cost.
The typical purchases in the goods market are include food, tools, construction materials, office supplies, equipment, etc.
Construction/maintenance is a market category that includes the design of the work and/or its execution in accordance with the previously specified requirements.
Construction/maintenance procurement and monitoring procedures usually visiting the place where the works should be performed with potential contractors, allowing them to better understand what is needed and the requirements in order to make a more accurate offer. As the works usually takes time to be finalised, an execution timeline must to be included in the plans as well as moments where inspection visits have to be performed.
Common examples are; a building rehabilitation (in full or part), any kind of construction, road sections, etc.
The services market category includes the intellectual and non-intellectual services that do not fit in goods and works markets definitions. Evaluations, technical assistance, or any other activity not involving the transfer of a tangible product are considered as a service.
Under this market its possible to hire the services of dispatchers, lawyers, consultants, translation services, transport, etc.
Property/Rental markets refer to the rental of real state, whether land or buildings, regardless of their purpose. This market possesses certain characteristics that makes the sourcing and selection process slightly different from the other markets:
The complexity of of the property market means it is difficult to measure two or more premises exactly by the same criteria. While there are some similar comparable aspects such as the location, the structure, the internal distribution, security considerations, makes the selection process more complex. Logistics personnel associated with procurement must evaluate the local market (actively) and choose the more economical option that fits the initial requisites as much as possible.
Any procurement strategy must observe the core procurement principles established by an organisation and should incorporate different procurement plans for programs or projects where needs are pre-identified. Agencies should know what, where and when supplies are needed and choose a supporting supply strategy, paying attention to the total cost of ownership (e.g., initial purchase, shipping, operation, maintenance and disposal costs), the special field conditions and the actual ability to acquire and deliver materials and services needed. If agencies do not approach procurement strategically, they run the risk of not being able to accommodate all needs, fail to comply with budgetary restrictions, and run financial, reputational or even security risks.
A strategy has to be flexible and ready to be revised with changing conditions, changing requirements, or changes in the context surround the organisation. Each intervention must to have a separate procurement plan that reflects the minimum information on the anticipated needs, allowing:
Procurement plans are the basis of any procurement process - they must be prepared before the start of any action, program or project, and must be based on analysis of budget, beneficiary numbers and activities. The exercise is a common effort among all the participants, including project and programme staff, logistics personnel involved in procurement, and finance staff who control budgets. The plan should formalise the following details:
It is possible that aid organisations cannot not foresee all needs throughout the project duration, and that any given plan may undergo major or minor modifications due the changing conditions. There are usually recurring requirements that can be anticipated, however, and there are some reasonable estimates that can be based on past experiences from where planners can extract information.
It is key to clearly define the requirements for every needed good or service at the planning phase. This enables persons enacting procurement to better understand the function, performance and technical specifications that will be required to cover the requester needs, how to determine the best solution to fit them, and how to establish the evaluation criteria to assure the quality standards.
The following documents can have different names in each organisation.
Procurement Process Step
Bill Of Quantities
A document used in tendering in the construction industry in which materials, parts, and labour (and their costs) are itemised.
Request for Expression Of Interest
A formal notification aimed at determining the capacity, interest, and availability of potential suppliers in the market to deliver the goods and services required.
Request For Information
Is used to supplement the writing of the technical annexes to the solicitation documents and ensure those are accurate and have a comprehensive set of requirements.
The standard and official form to request a purchase.
Scope of Work
SOWs can be used for different contexts:
Terms of Reference
A description of the work to be performed, the level of quality and effort, the timeline and the deliverables, used to define the performance requirements for services that cannot easily quantified.
A document drawn up by the contracting authority setting out its requirements and/or objectives in respect of the provision of supplies, specifying, where relevant, the methods and resources to be used and/or results to be achieved.
Request For Quotation
A written request made to suppliers for the purchase of goods or services, up to a maximum value established by the organisation.
Invitation To Bid
A letter sent to selected candidates in a restricted procedure or competitive negotiated procedure inviting them to submit a bid. This term is use interchangeably with “RFQ” in this guide.
Request For Proposal
A written request made to suppliers for complex purchase exceeding the maximum value established by the organisation. This term is use interchangeably with “Tender Dossier” in this guide.
The dossier compiled by the Contracting Authority and containing all the documents needed to prepare and submit a tender.
Tool aimed to compare the different bids received and present them in a Comparative Table.
Document where present every detail about a tender process, including a comparative table and a reasoned proposition to award the contract
Ordering and Contracting
A financial commitment that confirms the purchase details (Units, quantity, price, delivery time and Location, etc), formalising the Order
Terms and Conditions
The applicable rules governing the purchase of a product, service or works.
Legally binding agreement between the organisation and the supplier. It defines the Terms and Conditions for the good and services provision, as well as the signatories related rights and obligations. (see Contracts).
LTA or FWA
Long-Term or Framework Agreement
A contract concluded between a Contracting Authority and an economic operator for the purpose of laying down the essential terms governing a series of specific contracts to be awarded during a given period, in particular as regards the duration, subject, prices, conditions of performance and the quantities envisaged. ( see LTAs)
Documentary proof that the supplier commitments have been fulfilled.
Documentary evidence of the transfer of responsibility of a cargo.
A document that state the parties involved in the transaction, describe the goods purchased and indicate their value.
Each specific purchase will need to be in compliance with each organisation's own procurement procedures and donor requirements. Every procurement process must be justified and thoroughly documented, having its own dossier containing all the documents related to a procedure. A procurement dossier can be thought of as a set of documents that justifies the steps taken in a particular procedure. Not all dossiers will be the same in volume and complexity. (see Most Common Procurement Procedures), but all dossiers should be preserved for later use (see Documentation Management, Files).
A proper filing system ensures that records are properly maintained during a fixed period of time for internal and external use.
A filing system has no value if the documents are not duly completed and signed. Only employees to whom such responsibility has been formally assigned should be authorised to sign documents. Those employees must understand the meaning of their signature in terms of their responsibilities and consequences for the organisation. Files must be kept for months or years, depending on donor requirements or internal audit guidelines.
Most of the forms handled by logistics personnel have or should have specific codes (references) that allow them to be connected and subsequently tracked. Typically, a form includes its own reference for easy identification, as well as one or more references to link it to the other documents. Forms are filed according to their references, and the proper use of references has a direct impact on the archive. When someone (internal or external) needs information about the history of our operations, the correct use references (encoding) facilitate access.
These codes might include information about the country, the office and the department requesting the purchase plus a running number.
As an example, a purchase requisition for the logistics team in Rome, might follow the below convention.
<center> <table width="700" style="border:#ffffff thick solid; text-align:center"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0" width="200"><center><font size="5"> Unique Number </td> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0" width="200"><center><font size="5"> Document Type </td> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0" width="300"><center><font size="5"> Country </td><td bgcolor="#e0e0e0" width="300"><center><font size="5"> Sub-office </td> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0" width="300"><center><font size="5"> Department </td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#f1f1f1"><center><font size="10"> 1234 </td> <td bgcolor="#f1f1f1"><center><font size="10"> PR </td> <td bgcolor="#f1f1f1"><center><font size="10"> IT </td> <td bgcolor="#f1f1f1"><center><font size="10"> RM </td> <td bgcolor="#f1f1f1"><center><font size="10"> LOG </td> </tr> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0"><center><font size="4"> </td> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0"><center><font size="4"> </td> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0"><center><font size="4"> "Italy" </td> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0"><center><font size="4"> "Rome" </td> <td bgcolor="#e0e0e0"><center><font size="4"> "Logistics" </td> </tr> </table> </center>
When written, the code might look like:
<center><font size="12"> 1234/PR/IT/RM/LOG</font> </center>
An emergency response produces a quite important number of documents and each procurement documentation can occupy a large volume, which can make it difficult to find a specific document when it is needed. Hence the importance of labelling each folder and/or box in the most harmonised way possible, thinking of those who will come after the initial response phase. The common archiving approach allows documents to be tracked more easily, while also allowing sensitive files to be identified faster in an emergency.
All related folders must be clearly labelled. A colour, number, or pattern should be set to help determine what to do with those files based on the security level. This measure should also be applied by the other departments, especially finance and human resources.
Procurement is common - almost everyone does it automatically every day. However, for a procurement officer, procurement is a challenge in itself. Humanitarian logisticians purchase using funds provided by external donors to buy items and services defined by other colleagues with the aim to cover beneficiary needs. In order to align all those interests becomes essential to have some norms and tools.
In volatile context, with all the external and internal challenges and taking in consideration the capacity to impact the local market that the humanitarian aid has, is critical to have and implement standards over the whole process that could guide and ensure procurement principles are followed. Every coherent procurement process, regardless its aim or dimension, will have always six basic steps.
Procurement actions are based in a fair and transparent competition among different suppliers. Some form of market research should be done in order to collect information about the desired product and the potential suppliers that could potentially provide it.
Market research is used to identify suppliers, assist in the development of Technical Specifications, TORs and SOWs, ascertain freely available pricing information (e.g., company catalogues) and obtain information on available technology .
It is convenient to have a supplier database from which quotes are requested. If no such database exists, it is advisable to create one. A supplier database needs to be updated routinely, and agencies may look to platforms or sources of information such as:
In the process of identifying suppliers, agencies may wish to follow a formal process. Many agencies issue official documents, including:
These formal requests should be based on templates that will allow to build a more accurate opinion about the product or service that we pretend to acquire and its availability in the context we are working.
Any procurement for goods or services should be built upon needs. Once the needs are identified measured and planned by a team or individual within an agency, they should be formally communicated to the organisation´s procurement team, usually through a formally defined a Purchase Request specifying:
A key component of any purchase requisition should be the inclusion of technical specifications. There are many ways for suppliers to define technical specification. These might include:
In other words, the requester should fill the format with the information agreed during planning. If a pre plan was not done, the request may have some delays while the feasibility is assessed.
The PR is usually the standard and official form to request a purchase. The PR is where the different members involved in the procurement process combine and validate the details, turning these into commitments:
One of the best ways to assure that each request is well presented, understood and agreed among all the units involved in the process is to create a coordination space to do it. The usual coordination tool is the implementation of a recurrent meeting between requestors, heads of unit, and the procurement where the requests can be discussed and validated.
Once potential suppliers have been selected (or before launching an open bidding process), solicitation documents must be carefully prepared. The way in which these offers are solicited and received conditions the rest of the process; there is an inverse and direct relationship between what is solicited and what is offered. Procurement teams will only choose from the options offered by the providers, but what is offered largely depends on how and what the providers have been asked to offer. That is why the specifications of required products or services must be clear, and the terms of the requested bid must be well defined.
Supplier selection criteria must be established and communicated clearly and in advance to suppliers, ensuring equal treatment. It is important to take time to establish and/or understand the selection criteria since the supplier selection criteria cannot be modified or changed, once communicated to the suppliers.
The documents involved in the solicitation process can be different depending on the type of competition that applies (see Procurement Procedures) and the nature and complexity of the good and services being procure. It is important that all documentation contains details on procedural, technical, financial and contractual components, which suppliers must follow when submitting their offers. They are build based on templates, customized to fit the specificities of the procedure undertaken and completed with the details applicable to each solicitation.
|In general, any Solicitation document, no matter the procedure, will contain:|
|What is Required|
|Instruction to suppliers|
|The applicable Terms and Conditions|
The solicitation document must to be distributed simultaneously among the preselected suppliers with sufficient time to analyze and properly build offers. The solicitation document could contain a standard submission format facilitating the comparison among the offers during the evaluation phase.
When soliciting material goods, it's advisable to include as much technical information as possible about the material specifications, laid out in a clear and transparent format that is easy to understand but difficult to misinterpret. Material specifications might include:
Following Specifications Throughout the Procurement Process
These material specifications should be included in:
Solicitations - The more detailed the specifications, the more accurate the returned bids will be. Detailed specifications will help eliminate vendors that are unable to meet the specific requirements, but will also encourage vendors to only commit to what they know is possible.
Contracts with suppliers - Material specifications included in contracts will legally hold vendors to the standards set by their bids. The material specifications in contracts should match the specifications provided in the bid process.
Instructions to third party inspection companies - Once a vendor is selected, and a contract agreed upon, third party inspection companies can be used to test products against the contracted material specifications. Inspection companies may use visual inspection or laboratory testing to confirm all material specifications are met. Many agencies prefer to receive prototype samples of items prior to the final order, and conducting inspection at multiple points throughout the entire process. Purchasers may also chose to withhold payment until the final inspection is complete.
Detailed specifications will vary depending on the item in question, the agency, the size of the procurement, and the market supplying the product.
|Item Type||Some products with well established designs - such as machine parts - might require less spelled out specifications, and might rely more on specifying product capacity or functionality. Other products frequently used by the humanitarian sector - such as household products - are far more defined by specific needs, and are often combined with mutually recognized standards such as SPHERE. Though humanitarian agencies may have specific needs, the global understanding of those needs among vendors may not be well understood. For this reason, specifications for products specially developed or used for humanitarian interventions tend to be more explicit - usually the product is "developed" along side the vendor to match the purchasing agency's needs.|
Humanitarian agencies purchasing a small quantity of an item, or that buy already standardized products may have very little need to explicitly state product material specifications. However, agencies that purchase large quantities of one type of specialty product from a long term supplier or limited series of suppliers are more likely to have more advanced material specifications in their contracts. Detailed product specifications will help vendors source the correct raw materials, and will help keep quality assurance up.
|Markets||Commonly used large international vendors are usually more likely to be able to meet detailed product specifications requested by humanitarian agencies. The manufacturing capabilities and raw materials available to local companies may not meet the overall requirements of the requesting agency for key relief items. The balance between international and local procurement is something agencies must weigh, depending on local laws, import and transport costs, the ethics surrounding procurement, the desire to support local markets, and overall project needs.|
Many large agencies that regularly procure typical relief supplies have material specifications readily available, including the ICRC/IFRC Catalog and the Oxfam Supply Center. These material specifications are useful as a reference point for any agency that wishes to enter into contracts for emergency relief supplies.
Example Material Specifications:
BLANKET, SYNTHETIC, 1.5x2m, high thermal
Samples for testing purpose
Samples of blankets must be from compressed bales.
All criteria to be passed on the same sample.
(Samples of compressed bales to be prepared with only 5 blankets folded once more than in normal bales, at 60% compression ratio, and to remain compressed for one week minimum before testing).
Knitted or woven, dry raised both sides. If any, inner layer can be non-woven type.
Content ISO 1833 on dry weight
100% pure polyester and/or acrylic fibres or polyester/cotton
Other than black, red, or white, dark uniform colour.
150 x 200cm +3%/-1%. To be taken on flat stabilised sample, without folds.
500g/m2 minimum maximum 1000g/m² weight determined by total weight/total surface.
Thickness ISO 5084
9.5mm minimum (1KPa on 2000mm²)
Tensile strength ISO13934-1
250N warp and weft minimum
Tensile strength loss after washing ISO13934-1 and ISO 6330
Maximum 5% warp and weft after 3 consecutive machine washing at 30°C and one flat drying.
Shrinkage maxi. ISO 6330
Maximum 5% warp and weft after 3 consecutive machine washing at 30°C and one flat drying.
Weight loss after washing
Maximum 5% after 3 consecutive machine washing at 30°C and one flat drying.
Thermal resistance ISO 11092
Rct= 0.40m².K/W minimum, rounded to the nearest 0.01, passed on samples picked from compressed bales.
Mechanical conditioning: after opening of the bale, the blanket shall be dry tumbled in a dryer (500l minimum capacity) without any other load for 15 minutes at a temperature of less than 30°C. Then, the blanket shall be conditioned for at least 24 hours by flat lying at ambient conditions (20°C and 65% Relative Humidity).
Resistance to air flow ISO9237 under 100Pa pressure drop
Maximum 1000 L/m²/s
Whipped seam at 10mm from the edge with 10 to 13 stitches/10cm or stitched ribbon or hemmed on 4 sides. Corners can be round up to 10cm radius, or square.
No bad smell, not irritating to the skin, no dust. 4<pH<9.
Free from harmful VOC (Volatile Organic Components).
Fit for human use.
Fire resistance ISO12952-1
Resistance to cigarette - No ignition
Fire resistance ISO12952-2
Resistance to flame - No ignition
No individual packing of the blanket, in order to reduce plastic wastes in the environment.
Marking on the blanket
Every blanket should include a tag, stitched in the hem. The tag should include the manufacturer’s name, a unique reference batch number and the date of manufacturing. No company logo should be included with the manufacturer’s marking.
Marking on the package
BLANKET, SYNTHETIC, 1.5x2m, high thermal – 15 pieces.
Other markings as specified in contract.
Source: ICRC/IFRC Standard Products Catalogue
Many agencies may choose to use what is known as a Bid Evaluation Committee/Panel to properly facilitate the process of analyzing and scoring incoming offers in a fair and transparent way. After properly recording every step undertaken during solicitation process, and before bids are open, the Evaluation Committee/Panel will join together to study the offers. The Evaluation Panel composition could be as simple as two people (requester and purchaser) performing and informal evaluation or be regulated formally and integrated by teams of different departments. No matter the value of the procurement or procedure followed, there should always be a set of people to respect the segregation of duties principle. In the case of the most restrictive procedure, is common to form it at the very beginning of the process, officializing it by signing a “Declaration of Objectivity and Confidentially” and /or a “Disclosure of Conflict of Interest”.
The offers should be evaluated using the criteria and weight of each previously communicated. Common offer evaluation criteria might include:
All evaluation criteria should be:
During the evaluation process, it is necessary to balance various tangible and intangible factors, some of which may conflict with each other. Methods for determining the extent to which a potential supplier can meet the criteria include:
To be able to present the evaluation results, is common practice to make a summary document, either in the form of a comparative table or a full report that has be signed by all the member of the Evaluation Panel. In any case, any summary document must have a reasoned recommendation on the supplier selection and contain as many explanations as necessary about this selection.
Once the proposal to award a supplier has been validated, the selection of the suggested supplier should be validated by the requisite internal approval process of the agency. The award decision should be communicated to the winning supplier, and unsuccessful suppliers shall be notified establishing a mechanism able to debrief them and take note of any possible complaint.
Each order has to be formalized by modifying the standard templates for this purpose, the contract or the simpler Purchase Order(PO).
Some agencies my prefer the use of some form of a Long-Term Agreement (LTA), where by a supplier is pre-vetted using the standard solicitation process, but has an open-ended contract for delivery of goods and services. Requesting agencies can use the PO as the confirmation to use the conditions applicable to it and concretizing, units, quantities, delivery details, etc.
The organisation must establish a threshold beyond which the relationship can no longer be formalized through a PO and a contract becomes necessary. However, each organisation´s Terms and Conditions (TC) applies in any case, therefore, a simplified TC must to be communicated (attached to the PO) and respected by both parties. The act of signing the PO - and the organisation´s TC- by the supplier makes the PO become a simplified contract.
The order documents (PO or contract) must clearly indicate the delivery conditions, who will assume responsibility for moving goods, when and where it is intended to transfer responsibility for the products and all the necessary details to plan accordingly and put in place any necessary means in terms of transport and logistics.
Delivery planning involves the review and consideration of all logistics related aspects of the procurement process. It starts at the needs assessment phase by considering the desired result of the Requesting Unit and the end user and identifying the actions needed to ensure the successful completion of the activity. 
The transfer of responsibility between the seller/carrier and the agency is a key moment in the procurement process. The transfer of responsibility can be done in the manufacturer/seller premises, or be undertaken fully by the supplier who will be responsible transporting the cargo to the agreed destination, either the agency premises, warehouse or other and in special cases directly to the beneficiaries. The most standard used method of defining the method and location of the transfer of responsibilities is through defining Incoterms in the procurement contract. Incoterms are only applicable for international procurements however, so the transfer of responsibility in domestic procurement may need to be spelled out explicitly. In every case, the transfer of responsibility has to be clearly recorded through the standard set of shipping documents.
For simpler deliveries, in addition to the above, or when the Supplier is in charge to delivery at final destination, is common to use a Delivery Note that must contain at least:
When goods are delivered, the recipient should perform a physical inspection of the packages against all delivery documents to ensure that they fully conform to the requirements of the contract, by checking:
If any deviation is found in either of these two elements, it is crucial that it is mentioned in writing in the delivery documents, since otherwise it will be very difficult to claim later the deviations or damage suffered.
The transfer of responsibility becomes effective when the representative of the organisation signs the Delivery Note. The signed Delivery Note, the PO and the Commercial Invoice will be the minimum mandatory documents to process payment. In the case that the supplier/carrier is not able to provide any delivery document nor even a Delivery Note, agencies may wish to create and sign a Reception Note, officializing the transfer of responsibility over the cargo and stating any potential deviation.
A procurement procedure is an internal process established by every organisation to set up the minimum requirements to ensure that the purchases made are compatible with the basic principles of responsibility, accountability, transparency, equal treatment of suppliers and proportionality, while guaranteeing the best value for money. The procurement procedures ensure objectivity during the supplier awarding process. However, the awarding criteria themselves will be adapted to the context, program needs and donor regulations.
A standard procurement procedure involves the following major steps:
Purchases are accompanied by significant cash flows, so agencies must take into account the impact they generate in the contexts where they work, and the effect they may have on the beneficiaries.
For normal operations (not first phase of an emergency response), the procurement method is chosen based on a defined framework with value thresholds. The framework includes, as a minimum, levels for Direct Purchase, Competitive Quotations and Tendering. The levels of the thresholds are based on the context, taking into account monetary values; frequency of transactions; lead time to process the procurement and organisation’s risk tolerance. The threshold set is continuously respected throughout the normal operations and reflects donor and INGO requirements. 
Although each organisation and/or donor uses different names to the different purchasing procedures, they all share the same logic and basic principles. In this guide we are going to name the different procedures as follows.
The direct or single quotation procedure is the most relaxed one in terms of documentation, evaluation and requirements, as it is done for purchases with a low total value. Its main characteristic is that the goods or services are acquired without prior documented comparison of prices or purchase conditions, which makes the purchasing process relatively quick and easy.
The unit or person responsible for procurement will buy from the most advantageous supplier identified in the supplier catalogue. If the ordered article is not listed in the supplier catalogue or is the first time to purchase a specific item or service, is mandatory or at least a good practice to ask a supplier for an RFI that will help to decide and plan the purchase more accurately and make an informal survey of the market. The unit or person responsible for procurement has to contact the supplier to confirm the price and assure the criteria of satisfactory quality, delivery times, competitive market prices and correspondence with the available budget.
A purchase dossier would contain:
|Example PR||Example PO|
For higher amounts, more information is required to objectively evaluate and justify the best quality-price ratio. In order to do so, a documented comparison of prices and purchase conditions must be carried out prior to the purchase itself.
Once the terms of the purchase request have been agreed, an official and detailed RFQ must be prepared in writing, which will be sent to at least 3 different suppliers, or the sufficient number of candidates to ensure a genuine competition. The RFQ must set a date for the offer’s delivery, all the technical specification and selection criteria that will apply in the process. In the event that three quotes cannot be obtained, the purchaser will attach the quote requests sent to the different suppliers to justify that it was not possible to collect the three quotations. All quotations must be complete and must clearly indicate the name and address of the suppliers, as well as the offer validity.
Exceptions might apply when a quotation is when an exactly similar purchase previously made and the quotations received back then are still valid.
Dossier of Information
Product, Service Information
Terms and Conditions
Expected Offer Composition
Deadlines and Signatures
A quotation for Submersible pumps in ACF-Syria 2016.
Quotations are analyzed based on the selection criteria mentioned in the RFQ and the results will be presented in a bid matrix. The supplier selection is generally the joint responsibility of the Procurement unit and the Requester.
Before the financial commitment becomes effective, some agencies choose to add an additional layer of validation, whereby the heads of the procurement and financial departments approve the purchase, certifying that both the process followed and the financial allocation are correct. In the case of contracts with a high amount, the validation of the preidentified relevant persons is usually mandatory.
A purchase dossier would contain:
The comparative bidding process is the system for acquiring products, services or works, by requesting proposals (RFP/Tender Dossier) from “bidders” and choosing the supplier from the offers received. As in the previous procedures, the selection criteria must be established and communicated in advance to potential bidders.
Unlike the negotiated procedure whereby the organisation recognizes at least three (3) potential suppliers from whom it requests a quote, a public or open tender process is public and anyone can submit an offer. The offers are evaluated by a tender evaluation committee created at the beginning of the process. All members of the evaluation committee and the employees involved in the bidding process have the obligation to understand and sign the Declaration of Objectivity and Confidentiality or a similar document.
All documents necessary for the tender must be prepared and have been verified before the start of the tender. These documents are generally sent to headquarters for approval prior to the publication of the tender. An open national tender might consist of:
A Purchase Dossier would include:
The tenders could have a different geographical scope, allowing only local economic operators to see and submit and offer, or allow anyone nationally or internationally to present their offer. Principles to take in consideration while choosing between these two options are the support of local economies, the efficiency in the process, the ethical standards and environmental care while assuring the availability of the product/service in the terms that are needed by the organisation.
It is possible as well, to make tenders Open where all interested suppliers may submit a tender or do it Restricted, where only suppliers within a pre-defined scope or category may take part.
The concept of "thresholds" is key to determine the appropriate procedure to apply. The notion of thresholds is essential to ensure the principle of proportionality between the purchase market cost and the effort dedicated to obtaining the best purchase conditions.
Thresholds work by defining a dollar value at which higher levels of signature or approvals are required. The higher the value of the procurement, the higher the approval authority and the more detailed the procedure to be applied.
As an example, an agency may wish to set a threshold at $500 USD:
The nature and limit of each threshold will be determined by individual agencies, based on their own financial oversite needs and guided by:
The level of thresholds and the required procedures should be included in each agencies procurement manual or procurement policies.
Comparative Table Different Procedures
Following the proportionality principle, it is advised to increase the publicity and complexity if the total amount is higher that the value of the proposed procurement.
Direct Purchase or Single Quotation
Competitive, Negotiated Procedure
Level of publicity:
Medium (min. 3 suppliers contacted)
High (publication in media, public opening of offers, public award notice)
Light, one person
Medium (Logistician + Requester)
High (Tender Evaluation Committee, min. 3 people)
Few (PR, PO, Invoice)
Medium (PR, QR, Qs, ET, PO, Invoice, DN)
High (13 templates)
Country Level + HQ (in some cases)
Country + HQ for Tender Dossier and supplier selection
Bid splitting is when several smaller purchases are done instead of a single large purchase, artificially splitting a bid within a budget in order to avoid a relevant procedure. Bid splitting is considered a bad practice, and may constitute fraud.
Bid splitting becomes fraudulent when the objective is to apply a less restrictive procurement procedure than what best practice or agency wide procurement procedures might advise. Splitting a bid may not always be fraudulent when circumstances necessitate it for security, cost-effectiveness, and other justifiable reasons. Any decision to split a bid must be clearly explained and documented.
Donors are entities, institutions or individuals that finance the projects that an organisation implements. Procurement procedures must guarantee that all goods, services and works are obtained in accordance with their procurement policies, as well as all the laws applicable to these expenses.
Any person or team responsible for procurement must be familiar with donor procurement-related regulations at all stages of the project cycle and ensure that the Organisation fulfills its contractual obligations to the donor. Among other actions, the procurement unit must verify if the donor has specific rules on thresholds and procurement procedures, as well any specific regulation applicable to the acquisition of medical or agricultural products, equipment, etc.
“Market analysis is a key component of response analysis; it informs the design and implementation of appropriate interventions using and supporting local markets”
In a crisis context the humanitarian sector has an enormous capacity to impact the local market, hence it is necessary to act based on humanitarian principles and values, having in mind the concept of “Do not Harm”. For this reason, it is essential to analyze the market in which we operate and thus be able to better control the role the organisation plays in it.
Key factors in a market analysis:
Market analysis is an essential component of context analysis, collecting information that will be useful to program the intervention and how to implement it. It is also a critical element of contingency planning and preparedness.
IFRC introduction to Market Analysis Video
There are several key tools from where the information about the market can be extracted. As an agency or individual conducts procurement, there is a quite important amount of information that will help to analyze the market that surrounds the organisation. Humanitarian agencies should to conduct market assessments and revise them with an analytical look when is needed.
Sometimes it is difficult to get an idea of a supplier only through their official bid documents. It may be key to visit the suppliers in their workplace, especially when agencies intended to start a lasting relationship with the supplier. Do not underestimate the power of an in-person conversation, or the details that can be learned by knowing their facilities.
Helpful steps to follow:
Bidders must be excluded from any procurement procedure in any one of the following cases:
As evidence proving that potential supplier does not come under one of the above-mentioned situations, the candidate shall submit at least one of the following documents:
Background checks are strongly advised prior to contracting with an agency:
Contracts will not be awarded to bidders who during the procurement procedures:
Supplier management is a set of principles, processes, and tools that can help organisations to maximize the value of supplier relationships, minimize risks, and manage overheads throughout the entire relationship lifecycle. It entails creating closer and more collaborative relationships with key suppliers to achieve greater value and reduce risks.
It is important to know what are the specifications of the products or services needed, the legal framework for their acquisition and the existence of these in the market. Not taking these three concepts into account increases the risk of not finding what are expected, procuring something not needed, or not respecting local norms and behaviors when purchasing them.
The objectives of an effective supplier relationship management are to:
Once identified, the suppliers must meet some requirements in order to be register, to assets the compliance with them the suppliers will be requested to assure that:
For certain categories of goods and services, or in certain country specific contexts, suppliers may be required to meet additional/different criteria in order to be registered.
The registration will be the base of the supplier catalogue, a tool where to insert every supplier registered and all the information about the relationship between them and the organisation.
|Pre-Qualification is generally used to preselect suppliers for the provision of complex/strategic goods and services based on very specific needs. This selection can be from the Supplier Catalogue or include other providers. Only invited suppliers that meet established criteria are then invited to bid. This ensures that only companies with a high level of quality and/or expertise are invited to the solicitation.|
|The monitoring of supplier activities with the organisation, are in most cases done through the Procurement Documents. Each procurement step has to be explained and justified; therefore, all the official communication has to be documented. It is a best practice to create and update a tool that could record key indicators in the procurement process. Such a tool might record of all the interactions with the suppliers allows the agency to analyze and monitor the relations through the time. Key indicators might include, but are not limited to response rates, records of evaluated proposals, number of contracts awarded, POs managed, and expenditures.|
Supplier Performance Evaluation
Measurement the performance of suppliers in support of an organisation’s needs is important. Supplier evaluation in turn influences the identification of suppliers as past performance of suppliers may influence the process of drawing up shortlists.
Surveys are an important source of information, that could facilitate the analysis of the supplier and procurement unit performance. The requesting unit should be asked about their opinion about the supplier performance (in a standardized and official manner) and that should be included in the Supplier Catalogue, to be referenced when new procurement actions are being planned.
Once the supplier(s) are identified, and it is time to establish a negotiation, it is useful to:
The objective of any negotiation is to achieve a “win to win” situation. If one of the parties does not feel benefited in some way, the relationship tends to break down.
When entering negotiation, it is important to have at least two real possible outcomes to choose from; this will make the negotiation more efficient by having a margin of safety and not feeling/establishing a dependency relationship.
The agreements the two entities reach must be formalized, clearly establish the obligations of each party, detail what can be expected from the relationship and not least, be able to have tools in case of non-compliance that will be of great help if there is a conflict. The best way to improve working practices in your supply chain is to work hand-in-hand with your suppliers to help them to implement achievable improvements
There are two main tools to manage the relation with a supplier, the Contract and the more flexible Long-Term Agreement (also called Framework Agreement).
A contract is an agreement with specific conditions between two or more people or entities in which there is a commitment to do something in exchange for an economic benefit known as consideration. The existence of a contract generally requires the following elements:
Included in these six points are all the demands and expectations that the different parties may have. From the technical quality of the product or service, through the form and conditions of payment, to details about compliance. Everything that is worth mentioning must be included in the contract, since what is not in it cannot be enforced. Hence, it is advisable to dedicate enough time to build a good contract and properly agree with the supplier on it.
It is advisable to build a template, with a structure as fixed as possible and with simple and direct language. It is common to review the signed contracts to resolve doubts and knowing the structure of our contracts helps to save time.
A good practice is to have this template reviewed by a local lawyer, who in addition to ensuring that our contracts are in accordance with the law, could advise us on local customs and practices.
In the event of any contract dispute, the agency must communicate with the supplier in question. If necessary, a friendly discussion is always preferable. Most conflicts with a provider are resolved with dialogue and the commitment to resolve small details, but this discussion should be formal, including a lawyer if necessary.
Going to court should be avoided whenever possible, anticipating this possible situation and remedying it before reaching these extremes. Hence, having good contracts that anticipate how possible breaches will be resolved is key. The use of financial penalties is useful during negotiation and a tool in case of conflict.
Long Term Agreements (LTAs)
A Long Term Agreement, known as well as Framework Agreements, establish the commercial terms and conditions that will govern between the supplier and the procuring agency in the event that there is a firm order for the goods or services established in the agreement. An LTA aims to define the commercial conditions that will apply to the purchase of specifically determined goods and for a pre-established period of time. It is especially relevant for small, low-value and less complex items purchased on a regular basis, such as office supplies, most spare parts, cement, prepaid mobile phone service, etc.
An LTA is applicable when several deliveries are expected, but neither specific quantities nor delivery dates can be foreseen. It is important to understand that a LTA is not in itself considered a purchase commitment, but simply sets out the conditions that would apply if the organisation decided to place an order; there is no commitment or exclusivity.
To avoid confusion and possible conflicts, it is essential to make it very clear to suppliers from the beginning of the bidding process that the objective is to sign a LTA and not a regular purchase contract. It is important to ensure that bidders understand the mechanism. Since there is no exclusivity, a Long-Term Agreement can be signed with two or three different suppliers of the same products, under identical terms.
There are certain advantages inherent in the LTA that make it useful in any agency purchasing strategy, such as avoiding the repetition of processes and the corresponding paperwork for the same item throughout a project. Being by definition a larger purchase, organisations can get the best product/service at the best price in the shortest amount of time.
As a lasting relationship is established with the supplier, it is possible for agencies to work on the quality of the products/services that they offer to organisations, since agencies will be able to develop the relationship with suppliers to better understand needs and ways of working. In addition, sometimes LTAs are the only way to follow the correct procedures when only a short time is available. Organisations can follow all the procurement process without any requisition, being in a position to respond to requests in less time.
The quality of a product refers to all the elements and characteristics which constitute the product and which contribute to its compliance with the defined technical specifications.
Quality assurance (QA) is a procedure to ensure the quality of products or services by preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering products or services to beneficiaries. It is based in two principles:
QA focuses on improving a process and making it efficient and effective as per pre-defined quality standards. QA plays a role in the ability of an organisation to self-assess and ensure that internal processes are efficient and effective. It also ensures the existence of mechanisms and tools to ensure suppliers and products meet agencies needs.
For internal and external evaluation, the QA complete process has a defined cycle called P.D.C.A. The phases of this cycle are:
Sometimes organisations do not have the capacity to assess in these terms each supplier, however there are audit companies and standard certification organisations that can. Agencies should seek these third party agencies out and/or include those certifications as criteria for vendor selection.
There is a wide range of quality certifications, from seals applicable to an entire sector or to a specific product to, those that certify the quality of a process or those that focus on compliance with ethical and environmental standards. Some have great added value, others have more to do with marketing. They can have a national value or be internationally recognized. Although each stamp can be useful at a certain moment, International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) standards are the considered the recognized international best practice.
ISO is an independent, non-governmental Organisation created in 1946, and has been developing standards relating to making products, managing processes, delivering services or supplying materials.
Some of the most useful in the humanitarian sector are the following “families” standards:
Buying a product with an ISO certification and/or to a company that has been ISO certified is a guarantee that the product or company has been followed a quality process. However, not all the suppliers have ISO or other kind of certifications, especially in disaster or conflict settings. Without these standards in place, agencies may need to look for other sources of information to assure the quality before or during stablishing a relation with a supplier.
Vendor Social/Financial Audit
A social/financial compliance audit, also known as an ethical audit, is an inspection of an external organisation that verifies whether the supplier operations complies with social and ethical responsibilities, health and safety regulations, and labor laws. These audits help to judge if a supplier meets the organisation code of conduct, assuring the ethical policies.
A Financial audit can be complemented with the country fiscal year declaration and/or with bank statements that will help to evaluate their solvency.
Due to the ‘snapshot’ nature of audits, and the fact that they are not designed to identify the causes or solutions of problems, they are limited in what they can tell about the suppliers’ working practice. For that reason, getting maximum benefit from audits involves being aware of these limitations, and adding the right questions to complement them.
Inspection and Quality Control
Agencies should schedule time and resources to perform inspection during the product evaluation, before the order, or during reception. Quality Control (QC) is a continuous, standard and permanent process until the distribution/delivery to the beneficiaries, therefore must to be performed periodically while a product is the warehouse or under the organisation responsibility .Sometimes, QC is confused with the QA. Quality control is to examine the product or service and check for the result. Quality assurance is to examine the processes and make changes to the processes which led to the end-product.
It is strongly advised that product inspection must also be conducted once the procuring agency takes possession. Not only should products be inspected the first time they are delivered, they should be reviewed throughout the delivery process, especially for large orders. For large orders that may have multiple or ongoing deliveries, product substitution can be and is a real problem. Some vendors may unscrupulously swap legitimate products for false, inappropriate or incorrect products later down the line. Without ongoing vigilance, even fully tested and certified products may not actually show up.
Corporate fraud in any organisation runs ethical risks and leads to waste. In the case of non-profit institutions dedicated to tasks such as development cooperation or humanitarian aid, it threatens basic elements of their programming and their credibility within the community. Consequently, fraud must be dealt with through a determined attitude, anticipating events and not only reacting once they have been perpetrated.
Various forms of fraud can be referred to as:
We can place these three at the same level - they are all improper conduct. This guide will refer to fraud and anti-fraud policies when referring to all three of the aforementioned categories. To deal with fraud, it is necessary to for organisations establish an anti-fraud policy document. Likewise, the entity must periodically assess the exposure to the risk of fraud.
The anti-fraud policy must contemplate three elements:
|Prevention||Through the appropriation of the organisation's values by its workers, which in turn explains the possible consequences of fraud for the organisation. Organisations should also seek to establish a code of Ethics and Conduct, which must be communicated and disseminated throughout the organisation, including the appropriate communication channels and complaint formats. Staff should be trained in the identification, categorization and use of these channels and formats. Establish alert mechanisms that can anticipate and prevent the commission of fraud.|
|Control||Creating an Anti-Fraud Commission whose responsibility is the investigation and verification of compliance with the policies of the institution, dedicated to the systematic or ad hoc examination of the practices observed by persons or bodies of the institution. This commission will be in charge of establishing a compliance program with the established policies and norms and their monitoring. For a good information base to exist, staff must feel safe when reporting, but at the same time, they must feel the responsibility to provide truthful information. Clear responsibilities must be established and due protection to the complainant and protection against false reports.|
|Reaction||Displaying the principle of zero tolerance through quick and determined actions, always under strong evidence. This is only achieved with the collaboration of whistleblowers and in-depth investigations and the prior establishment of appropriate and consistent measures. Except for security risks that advise against it, these processes should be made public, and communicated among the staff or even with our donors and beneficiaries, so it will be necessary for there to be consistent in these actions. These communications are usually sensitive and should be studied and planned in advance.|
It is important to be aware that fraud prevention regulations cannot by themselves guarantee the non-existence of situations or events that have the potential to harm the institution. The effectiveness of fraud prevention guidelines will be based on the definition of the moral tone and the transmission of an ethical culture, which reflect the interests of the organisation and the individuals that comprise it.
Here are some examples of types of procurement fraud (this is not an exhaustive list):
Key red flags to watch out for may include, but are not limited to:
Related to Suppliers
Related to Personnel
Template - Bid Matrix.xlsx
Template - Purchase Order.xlsx
Template - Purchase Requisition.xlsx
 Source: Mangan, J., Lalwani, C. and Butcher, T. 2008, "Global Logistics and Supply Chain Management", Hoboken, NJ, USA, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
 ULS Procurement Handbook. Universal Logistics Standards https://handbook.ul-standards.org/en/humlog/#sec001
 Good and Services Procurement Manual. World Food Program (WFP), 2020. https://gsprocurement.manuals.wfp.org
 Good and Services Procurement Manual. World Food Program (WFP), 2020. https://gsprocurement.manuals.wfp.org
 Good and Services Procurement Manual. World Food Program (WFP), 2020. https://gsprocurement.manuals.wfp.org
 Procurement Standards. PARCEL Project (Partner Capacity Enhancement in Logistics) https://parcelproject.org/resources/logistics-standards/procurement/
 Minimum Standards for Market Analysis (MISMA). The Cash Learning Partnership (CaLP), 2017. http://www.cashlearning.org
 Procédures de contrôle de qualité. Kit Log. Action Contre le Faim. (ACF) 2017.https://www.actioncontrelafaim.org